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CHAPTER IV 

THE OSMANIA UNIVERSITY 

The Osmania University whicli was eia~ 
blished by a Royal Charter in 1918 is the first 
attempt in India to impart University Educa- 
tion through an Indian language, while retaining 
English as a compulsory subject of study. For 
over half a century, higher education in the State 
was controlled by the Madras University, but 
the results were so discouraging that in 1917, the 
Right Hon'ble Sir Akbar Hydari, Kt., P. c., 
D. c. L., LL. D , then Secretary to His Exalted 
Highness' Government in the Educational 
Department, submitted a memorandum to His 
Exalted Highness in which after surveying the 
existing conditions and discussing the disadvant- 
ages of imparting knowledge through the medium 
of a foreign language, he recommended the in- 
auguration of a University which should be both 
an examining and a teaching body and in addi- 
tion to this should undertake to compile and 
translate books, using Urdu as the medium of 
instruction and examination, as it is the official 
language of the State and is widely understood 



Dr. B. R. AMBEDKAR 
OPEN UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 

HYDERABAD-500 033 



Dr. B. R. AM8EDKAR OPEN UNIVERSITY 
LIBRARY 

Call No. " ' ' Access/on No. 

4 

Author : _. K- 1^4 <v 

Title : ,Y :((^ C J ^tC , ( ^ . L 



This book should be returned on or before the date 
last marked below. 




i:. ii. Tin: M/\M or in nu; \i; \n AND i;i:i; \i: 



PREFACE 

) 

This book has been published by the 
Information Bureau of H. E. H. the Nizam's 
Government, for the use of the members of the 
llth All-India Oriental Conference and the 5th 
All-India History Congress which are meeting in 
Hyderabad in December 1941 under the auspices 
of the Osmauia University. Thanks are due to 
Mr. G. Yazdani, Professor Haroon Khaa Sherwani, 

Dr, Syed Husain, Professor Hanumanth Rao, 

J > m ^*+ ' 

Dr. Yusuf Husain Khan, Dr. Ishwar Nath Topa 
and Mr. Abdul Majid Siddiqi for contributing the 
articles which <o to make up this small volume. 

DIRECTOR, INFORMATION BUREAU, 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER Page 

I. GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES . . 1 

II. A HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE DECCAN 

1. ANCIENT PERIOD . . 13 

2. MEDIEVAL PERIOD .. 17 

3. MODERN PERIOD .. 24 

III. PROGRESS IN RECENT YEARS . . 30 

IV. THE OSMANIA UNIVERSITY . . 45 

V. ARCHAEOLOGICAL MONUMENTS .. 55 

VI. PLACES OF INTEREST 

A. THE CITY OF HYDERABAD AND 

ITS SUBURBS . . ..76 

B. PLACES OF HISTORICAL INTEREST 

OUTSIDE THE ClTY OF HYDERA- 
BAD AND ITS SUBURBS . . 87 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

\ Pacing Page 

1. H. E. H. the Nizam of Hyderabad 

and Berar . . . . . . Frontispiece 

2. H. H. the Prince of Berar . . 6 

3. Sir Ahmad Said Khan, the Nawab of 
Chhatari, K.C.S.I., K.C.I. E., M.B.E., LL.D., 
President of H. E. H. the Nizam's 
Executive Council and Chancellor* of the 
Osmania University . . *< 30 

4. The Hon'ble Nawab Mahdi Yar Jung 
Bahadur, Finance and Education 
Member, Vice-Chancellor, Osmania 
University . . 33 

5. The Rt. Hon'ble Sir Akbar Hydari, 
Nawab Hyder Nawaz Jung Bahadur, 
P.O., Kt., D.C.L., LL.TX, ex- Chancellor of 

the Osmania University . . 34 

H. The Demonstration Plot of Gaorani (12) 

Cotton on Chalka Soil in Telingana . . 35 

7. A Cadet of the Indian Air Force receiving 
instruction in Flying at the Elementary 
Flying Training School in Hyderabad . . 39 



8. Ten-Rupee Currency Note, the most * 
popular denomination in circulation in 

H. E. H. the Nizam's Dominions . . 42 

9. Postal Stamps of Hyderabad .. 44 

10. The Arts College, Osmania University .. 50 

11. The Kailasa (Ellora) .. ..62 

12. Map of the City of Hyderabad and its 
Suburbs .. .. ..76 

13. -H>, Jhisattva Padmapani (Ajanta) . . 87 

14. The Great Mosque, Fort (Gulbarga) . . 97 

15. Map of H. E. H. the Nizam's Dominions 
(Hyderabad and Berar) . . . . End 



CHAPTER I 
Geographical Features 

Extent and Character : The Dominions of 
H. E. H. the Nizam form the Eastern portion of 
what is generally called the Deccan 1 , and even if 
we exclude Berar 2 , they lie between 15 10' and 
20 40' N. and 74 40' and 81 35 r E. covering an 
area of 82,698 sq. miles, i.e., more than the area 
of England and Scotland put together. They are 
bounded on the north by the districts of *1HBtern 
Khandesh (Bombay Presidency), Chanda and 
Wardha (Central Provinces), on the east by Chanda, 
Bastar State and the district of Masulipatam 
(Madras Presidency), on the south by the districts 
of Krishna, Guntur, Karnul and Bellary (Madras 
Presidency), and on the west by the districts of 
Nasik, Ahmadnagar, Sholapur, Bijapur and 
Dharwar (Bombay Presidency). 

1 It may be interesting to know that the word dakshina, 
the original form of the word deccan, means the right hand and 
denotes that direction as the Aryans entered the Punjab fro or; 
West. Later, the word came to have the definite meaning of 
South. It -may he that dakshina is connected with the Persian 
dayan and the Hindustani dahina, both meaning the direction 
of the right hand. 

* Although Berar is jointly administered with the Central 
Provinces, there are geographical, historical, cultural and 



Surface: A very large part of the area of 
the Dominions consists of an extensive plateau of 
an average elevation of about 1,250 feet above the 
sea level, with certain eminences rising to 2,500 
feet and in one instance to 3,500 feet. It will, 
therefore, be seen that there are no 'hills' worth 
the name, although there are certain midenuded 
portions of a series of flat-topped plateaus apper- 
taining to the great tableland, which might be 
called 'hill ranges' for our purposes. Of these, the 
Balaghat range, well-known to Beraris, runs from 
Naiieb^ district through Parbhani reaching the Bir 
district with a length in the Dominions of about 
200 miles. The Sahyadri Parbat, famous in the 
annals of the Maharatta race, runs from the 
Nizamabad district, and, passing through Parbhani 
district and Berar, reaches Ajanta, world-famous 
for its caves. Proceeding further west, it enters 
the Bombay Presidency after running 250 miles in 
the Dominions. There are many spurs and 
isolated summits scattered throughout the State, 
the most famous of which perhaps are those on 

political ties connecting it with the rest of H. E. H. the 
Nizam's Dominions. By the agreement entered into between 
H. M. the Kins-Emperor and H. E. H. the Nizara on the 20th 
of October 1936, by which the lease in perpetuity of 1902 was 
abolished, these political ties have been further strengthened. 
The area of Berar is 17.710 sq. miles, t. <?., slightly larger than 
the area of Switzerland. 



which the great forts of Golconda, Daulatabad 
and Bhongir are situated, but these are the only 
two ranges of importance. 

Rivers: While the Dominions have com- 
paratively insignificant hill ranges, they are 
traversed by some of the most important rivers of 
India, at least one of which, the Godavari, is held 
sacred by vast masses of people. The river system 
consists of two great basins, that of the Godavari 
and of the Krishna, neither of which "rises within 
the State. The Godavari enters the Drt&krions 
in the Aurangabad district, and, after forming the 
boundary of eight districts and the Hyderabad- 
Bastar frontier, leaves the Dominions. Like ita 
sister-river, the Krishna, it flows out into the 
Northern Circars. In the course of its flow of 
more than 600 miles across the Dominions it 
attracts a number of tributaries, the chief of which 
are the Painganga, the Ward ha and the Parentha 
in the north, and the Manjira and Manor in the 
south. The Krishna is the other great river of the 
Dominions. Rising near the summer resort of 
Mahabaleshwar in the Bombay Presidency, it 
passes through the State, forming, like the 
Govadari, the boundary of a number of H. E. H. 



the Nizam's districts and also part of the 
southern frontier of the Dominions, and falling 
into the sea near Masulipatam after a flow of 
nearly 700 miles. Among its tributaries the most 
important are the Bhima, known to all students 
of Maharatta history, the Musi, on which stands 
the ancient capital of the Dominions, and the 
Tungabhadra which forms the southern boundary 
of the Raichur-Mudgal Doab, once the scene of 
incessant struggles between the Bahmani and the 
Vijiayanagar Empires. 

Regions The Dominions may be divided 
into two fairly definite regions, the western, 
generally called the Mahratwada, and the eastern, 
generally called theTiiangana although it contains a 
considerable sprinkling of Canarese-speaking people 
as well. If a line were drawn from the confluence 
of the Tungabhadra and the Krishna in the south 
to the confluence of the Munjira and the Godavari 
in the north, and extended up to the Hyderabad- 
Berar boundary, this would serve as a good 
demarcation of the two tracts. These regions 
differ not only in their racial and linguistic 
characteristics but also in their physical formation, 
for the Mahratwada is covered by tfappean rock, 
while the Tilangana has granitic and calcareous 
formation. The western trap or black cotton 



soil region (which is continued northwards 
into Berar) is the land of wheat and cotton, 
while the granitic Tilangana is the land of 
rice and juwar. Moreover, the former is cover- 
ed with luxuriant vegetation, cliffs, crags and 
undulating hills, while in the granite and lime- 
stone region the hills are bare of vegetation, and 
the land is covered with huge fantastic tors and 
boulders apparently piled one over the other. 
Similarly, while in the west the soil resulting from 
the decomposition of the trap is dark end fertile, 
in the east it is formed mainly from graniteand is 
sandy. In this eastern part, rivers dry up in 
summer, and storage of water in tanks and artifi- 
cial lakes is required for irrigation. The 
Dominions are thus the natural meeting-place of 
different physical formations as well. 

Artificial Lakes : The tanks and artificial 
lakes that abound chiefly in the Tilangana region 
have been constructed largely for purposes of 
irrigation. Some of them are historically inter- 
esting while most of them considerably add to 
the varied and delightful scenery of the Dominions. 
Among the historical lakes may be mentioned 
the Pakhal lake in the Warangal district which 
dates back to the Andhra dynasty of the 



6 

Kakatiyas, the Naldrug tank of the time of 'All 
'Adil Shah of Bijapur, the Husain Sagar, stretch- 
ing between the city of Hyderabad and the 
adjacent town of Secunderabad, built in the time 
of Ibrahim Qutub Shah, and the Mir *AIam tank 
about four miles from the capital city, 
representing the first effort at providing its 
inhabitants with fresh water in sufficient 
quantities, constructed by the Prime Minister of 
the third Asaf Jah. Two great artificial lakes 
near the c capital they are in fact too large 
to botfigjled tanks were constructed during the 
present period of rule, one to ward off the 
recurrence of the floods of the Musi which had 
played havoc so many times in recent history, 
and the other mainly for purposes of irrigation. 
These lakes, called the Osmansagar and the 
Himayatsagar after H. E. H. the Nizam and his 
Heir- Apparent, form a picturesque sight in the 
vicinity of the capital, the former, 18 sq. miles in 
area, serving at the same time as a reservoir of 
drinking water for the city and suburbs of 
Hyderabad. These lakes are, however small com- 
pared to the Nizam sagar, constructed recently by 
command of His Exalted Highness 'by damming 
the river Mdnjira by an embankment more than 
two miles long and covering an area of more than 



II. 11. THE PK1NCK OK BERAK 




THE COMMANDER 1X-( 1 HIEF OF H. E. II. THE 
NIZAM'S REGULAR FORCES 



50 sq. miles. This lake is intended to irrigate 
an eventual area of nearly three hundred thousand 
acres, and one of its immediate results is the 
development of extensive sugar-cane cultivation 
and the establishment of a successful sugar factory. 

Minerals : The Dominions abound in 
minerals of various grades and values. Among 
these coal is of great economic value, with mines 
at Singareni, Tandur, Sasti and Paoni. Gold 
used to be worked in the Raichur Doab but 
ceased to be profitable. Deposits of iron ore of 
varying quality are widely distributed ffver the 
laterite and the granite tracts and in the sand- 
stone formations of the Gondwana valley. Among 
other minerals may be mentioned mica, corundum 
and garnets in Warangal district and graphite in 
Karimnagar district. Limestone is extensively 
quarried at Shahabad near Gulbarga and is widely 
used for flooring purposes and also as the base of 
the well-known Shahabad cement. Quite recently 
marble rock has been discovered in the Warangal 
district and is being worked by a company. 
Although once famous for its diamonds, there are 
few diamond layers left in the Dominions, the 
chief diamond bearing area having been situated 
in what are now called the Ceded Districts. 
Meanwhile, it has not proved profitable to work 



8 

the small diamond layers still found round about 
Partyal near the Krishna, as the diamonds imbed- 
ded there under black cotton soil have proved 
too small to be of much value. 

Climate: The climate of the Dominions is 
pleasant and agreeable during the greater part of 
the year. There are three marked seasons, the 
winter from the beginning of October to the end of 
January, summer from February to June and 
rains from June to September. The mean 
temperature of the Dominions is about 89, the 
hottest parts being situated in the south-east and 
the coldest in the north-west. The climate of 
Maharatwada is generally hot and dry from 
March to the end of May and temperate during 
the rest of the year, while that of Tilangana is 
hot and damp from March to the end of Septem- 
ber and temperate during the remaining months. 
More than three-fourths of the total rainfall, 
which is about 33 inches on an average, is gener- 
ally received between June and September, the 
rest falling in the winter months. The following 
tables will show the temperature and rainfall for 
the different localities specified : 



9 



fc OOO-<cQ^HCD-tCOOCD 

SQOQOOiOOCiGOQOQOOJaO 




10 

Population : As is well known, H. E. H. the 
Nizam's Dominions lie almost in the centre of 
India, and it is inevitable that here should be 
found representatives of almost all the races 
which go to form the Indian people. Besides the 
Dravidian Telugu and Canarese, and the 
Prakritic Mahratti and Urdu, which are the chief 
mulki languages of the Dominions, we find 
languages so much geographically apart as Tamil 
and Punjabi, Malayalam and Rajasthaniand even 
Arabic and Persian spoken in the large cities of 
the State. It is only natural that the population 
of the provinces which are adjacent to the 
Dominions should be represented here to a greater 
extent than those more distant. Thus in 1931 
the residents of the Dominions from Madras 
numbered 13,20,000, those from Bombay 68,000, 
from the Central Provinces 14,000, from the 
United Provinces 8,000 and from the Punjab 
3,000. Moreover, we find quite a large number of 
people descended directly from the Persians, 
Arabs and Turcomans who came over to the 
Deccan in the days of the Bahmanis, the c Adil 
Shahis and the Qutub Shah is, or from those who 
came here from Delhi and the North along with 
the founder of the present dynasty, the great 
Nizamul Mulk Asaf Jah I. 



11 

Similarly, practically every religion found in 
India is represented here. Apart from the 
Hindus and the Muslims, who form the major 
part of the population, it is interesting to note 
that the number of Parsis (nearly 2,000) in the 
State exceeds their number in any province of 
British India except their 'homeland' Bombay, 
while, as Nanded is the burial-place of the last 
Guru of the Sikhs, the Dominions are a kind of 
second home of the followers of Guru Nanak. It 
has been the traditional policy of the Muslim 
rulers of the Deccan for centuries ^ast that 
their governments should be thoroughly impartial 
in their dealings with votaries of different 
faiths, this tradition of impartiality and toleration 
has been followed by the rulers of the Asaf Jahi 
dynasty from the time of its great founder 
right up to the reign of its present illustrious 
and distinguished representative His Exalted 
Highness Sultanul 'Uliim Asaf Jah VII, the 
present sovereign of these Dominions. 

It will thus be seen that the State of Hyder- 
abad forms a very interesting part of Indian sub- 
continent. Owing to its very position the land is 
the meeting-place of practically all the races, 
languages, religions and cultures of India. The 



12 



Dominions form a healthy buffer between these 
elements, presenting a synthesis of Hindu and 
Muslim, Northern and Southern, ancient and 
modern cultures which no other part of India can 
claim at present. 




CHAPTER II 

A HISTORICAL SKETCH 
1. Ancienf Period 

The earliest rulers of the Deccan known to 
history were the Andhras, a Dravidian people, 
now represented by the large population speaking 
the Telugu language and occupying the deltas of 
the Grodavari and Krishna rivers. The Andhra 
kingdom included thirty walled towns,- besides 
numerous villages, and the army consisted of 
100,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry and 1,000 
elephants. They ruled the country independently 
for four centuries and a half, but in the reign of 
Chandragupta Maurya (323-298 B. c.) and 
Bindusara (298 B.C.) the Andhras were compelled 
to submit to the irresistible forces at the com- 
mand of the Maurya kings and to recognise the 
suzerainty of Magadha. In Asoka's edicts 
(256 B. c.) the Andhras are mentioned among the 
tribes resident in the outer circle of the empire, 
but subject to the imperial influence, a fact which 
is proved among other things, by the presence of 
a rock edict recently discovered at Maski in the 
Raichur district. The withdrawal of the strong 



14 

arm of Asoka gaw the disruption of his vast 
empire. The Andhras were not slow to take 
advantage of this opportunity and very soon 
after the close of his reign, or possibly even 
before its close, set up as an independent power 
and extended their sway rapidly right up to 
Nasik in the west. 

The causes which led to the downfall of the 
Andhra kingdom need not detain us, and for 
nearly three centuries after its extinction in 
225 A.D. there is a complete blank in the history of 
the country. The next rulers who appeared on the 
scene were the Chalukyas who claimed their 
descent from the Rajputs. The founder of the 
dynasty was a chieftain named Pulakesin I, who 
made himself master of the town of Vatapi, the 
modern Badami in the Bijapur district, in about 
550, and established a principality of modest 
dimensions. His sons extended the possessions of 
the faimly both eastward and westward, but the 
golden period of their rule is identified with the 
reign of Pulakesin IT, who ascended the throne in 
608. He ruled practically the whole of India south 
of the Narbada, and even came into conflict with 
Harshavardhana of Kanauj. The fame of the 
king of the Deccan spread beyond the limits of 
India, and reached the ears of Khusrau II, king 



15 

of Persia, who in the thirty-sixth year of his reign 
(625-6) received a complimentary embassy from 
Pulakesin. The courtesy was reciprocated by a 
return embassy sent from Persia which was 
received with due honours at the Indian court. A 
fresco painting in Cave I at Ajanta has been 
identified by some scholars as representing the 
ceremonial attending the presentation of their 
credentials by the Persian envoys. 

The Chinese pilgrim, Hiuen-Tsang, visited 
the court of Pulakesin in the year 641, and he was 
profoundly impressed by the military powers of 
the king who was obeyed with 'perfect submission' 
by his numerous subjects. 

The Chalukyas,in their turn, were overthrown 
by the Rashtrakutas who remained supreme in 
the Deccan for nearly two centuries and a quarter 
(973). The reign of Krishna I, a king of this 
dynasty, is memorable for the execution of the 
famous rock-cut Kailasa temple at Ellora. Many 
other temples were the outcome of his royal 
munificence, and Sanskrit literature of the artifi- 
cial type, then in vogue, was liberally encouraged 
by this prince. 

The last of the Rashtrakuta kings was 
Kakka II, who was defeated in 973 by Taila or 



16 

Tailappall, a scion of the old Chalukyan stock, 
who restored the family of his ancestors to its 
former glory and founded the dynasty known as 
that of the Chalukyas of Kalyani, which lasted 
for over two centuries. Among the most import- 
ant rulers of this family was Vikramaditya VI, who 
came to the throne in 1076, and is recorded to 
have captured Kanchi. The celebrated jurist 
Vijnanesvara, author of the Mitakshara, lived at 
the court of this king. 

After the death of Vikramaditya VI, the 
Chalukya power declined, and by the end of the 
12th century their kingdom was absorbed by the 
Yadavas of Deogiri on the west and the Hoysalas 
of Dwarasamudra on the south. The first of the 
line to attain a position of importance was 
Bhillana, but the most powerful Raja was 
Singhana who invaded Gujarat and other coun- 
tries, and established a kingdom almost rivalling 
in extent the Dominions of the Chalukyas and 
Rashtrakutas. In 1294 'Alauddin Khalji crossed 
the Narbada, the northern frontier of the Yadava 
kingdom, and marched to Deogiri which he 
seized after a slight opposition. It is said that 
the reigning Raja, Ramachandra, presented him 
an enormous amount of treasure consisting of six 



17 

hundred maunds of pearls, two maunds of 
diamonds, rubies, emeralds and sapphires and 
other precious stones. When the Sultan's 
incursion was repeated by Malik Kafur in 1307, 
Ramachandra again refrained from opposition 
and submitted to the invader. 

2, Medieval Period 

This incursion of the invaders from the North 

was a movement which, after a gap of several 

centuries, again brought Southern India in contact 

with Delhi and after the lapse of about ^a quarter 

of a century we find Mubarak Shah Khalji and 

Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq advancing to the far 

south. The new conquests achieved by these 

invaders were, however, separated from the North 

by a long distance of several hundred miles, and 

by a number of natural barriers, and therefore 

they lacked durability. Moreover, they were not 

so firmly administered as to link them properly 

with the North as permanent annexations. With 

the exception of a decade, when Sultan 

Muhammad Tughlaq made a strenuous effort to 

make Deogiri or Daulatabad the capital of the 

Indian Empire, the country was only nominally 

under the northern rule. But it is an undeniable 

fact that new conceptions of life and politics which, 



18 

blended with the local traditions, prepared the 
Deccan for a higher and nobler ideal, were the 
product of these expeditions. 

When the great Tughlaq Empire broke up, 
owing to the disruptive-forces which were then at 
work, the "centurion nobles" in control of the 
Southern provinces, founded the nd&v independent 
state in 1345 called the Bahmani kingdom with 
'Alauddin Bahman Shah, sometimes, Jipown as 
'AlauddinJIasan Gangu Bahmani, as the first king. 
Disloyal though the rebels might seem to the cen- 
tral cause, Bahman Shah and his successors were, 
however, the great history- makers of the Deccan, 
to whom the country owes all its medieval glory. 
The dynasty produced a number of great persona- 
lities and some of them like Muhammad Shah IT 
and Feroz Shah have a just claim to immortal 
fame by virtue of their valuable contributions 
to learning and politics. 

It is not possible to attempt, in a short space, 
an adequate appreciation of what the Bahmanis 
did for the political and social reconstruction of 
the Deccan. It was they who gave a . national 
basis to the policy which they followed to guide 
their adopted country. They bestowed upon the 
country a sound constitution, which was framed 



19 

by the veteran statesman of the age, Malik 
Saifuddin Ghori, with adequate provision for the 
central and provincial governments, suited to the 
national and geographical conditions of the place 
and naturally tended to forge firm ties between 
the Hindus and the Musalmans and to organise 
a common Deccani culture. They also took much 
pains to develop the moral and mental capacities 
of their subjects, irrespective of their caste or 
creed, by propagating Art, Science and Literature 
throughout the kingdom and invited and 
patronised a host of scholars from abroad which 
made their capitals, Gulbarga and Bftlar, the 
great academies of Asia. Celebrated scholars like 
Mir Fazlulla Inju, who represented the best 
literary traditions of the day, are still remember- 
ed with affectionate pride, and statesman such as 
Mahmud Gawan, the founder of the great seat 
of learning at Bidar and the conqueror of the 
Konkan and Goa, were leaders of literary circles, 
educationists and diplomats, and their achieve- 
ments were known the world over. 

. ! ; 

Though the kingdom dragged on up to 1527 
with titular, kings who succeeded Muhammad 
Shah Lashkari, it really succumbed to the party 
jealousies of the Deccanis and "afaqis" and these 



20 

factions were to a large extent responsible for 
the downfall of the kingdom. The disruptive 
effects of this rivalry were hardly noticed in the 
beginning but they became so acute in the latter 
period that they were almost out of control. As 
the central government lost its power and 
prestige, the provincial governors, who had their 
following in one party or the other, divided the 
kingdom among themselves, and consequently 
five kingdoms of Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, Gol- 
conda, Ber^r and Bidar, rose on the ruins. With 
the exception of the Qutub Shahi kingdom of 
Golconda, which declared its independence two 
decades later, these kingdoms came into exis- 
tence almost simultaneously about 1490. The 
two last named, 'Imadshahi kingdom of Berar 
and Baridshahi kingdom of Bidar, were too 
small to withstand their powerful neighbours, 
and the result was that the former was absorbed 
by Ahmadnagar in 1574 and the latter by Bija- 
pur in 1619. But the other kingdoms of Bijapur, 
Ahmadnagar and Golconda, which continued for 
two centuries, have left a long history of war 
and peace behind them. It may appear, at the 
very outset, that their history is nothing but a 
record of inter-state warfare, caused by jealousies 
and religious differences, but behind these war 



21 

scenes, there is a peaceful development of art 
and general well-being going on behind the 
scenes, contributing a great deal to the stock of 
culture which they had inherited from their 
mother kingdom. 

The Nizam Shahi kingdom of Ahmadnagar 
being situated in the north was the first to face 
the Mughal onslaught and was soon absorbed 
by the North in 1633, that is to say, half a 
century before her sister kingdoms met with the 
same fate. But the kingdom still lives in the 
records of the heroic deeds of Husain* Nizam 
Shah I, who won the battle of Talikota, and of 
those of Ch and Bibi and Malik *Ambar, who re- 
vived and defended their kingdom to the last 
breath of their life. The cultural achievements 
of Malik 'Ambar in town planning, water works 
and agricultural reforms are national assets of 
the Deccan. The *Adil Shahi kingdom of Bijapur 
was consolidated in the reign of 'AH 'Adil Shah 
I who, with his heroic wife Chand Bibi, formed 
a strong bulwark which was almost invincible. 
His successor, Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II, was a 
great representative of his house. He raised 
the *Adil Shahi kingdom to the highest pinnacle 
of glory by his valuable achievements in the 



22 

domain of Art and Science. It was in his reign 
that Bijapur was regarded as an asylum of art 
and culture, and jie was known throughout the 
Deccan by tfye popular title of Jagat Guru, the 
" Preceptor of the World ". 

, The Qutub Shahi kingdom of Golconda 
which mainly occupied the Telugu-speaking 
region of the Deccan did not declare its indepen- 
dence till 1518. As a matter of fact the king- 
dom had Ijttle direct relation with the party 
cliques which were responsible for the downfall 
of the Bahmanis. The founder of the kingdom, 
Sultan Quli Qutub Sknh hailed from Hamadan. 
He came and joined service in the later period 
of Mahmud Shah Bahmani's reign first as a 
head of the army and afterwards as a governor 
of the Telugu-speaking Provinces of the Bah- 
mani kingdom. He remained faithful to 
the kingdom so long as his king and 
patron lived.. The kingdom of Golconda, so 
established by Sultan Quli, was consolidated by 
his youngest son, Ibrahim Qutub Shah, who 
fought against Vijianagar on the south and 
Ahmadnagar and Bijapur on the . north, and 
extended his territories in Carnatic. He also 
introduced a sound administration in his kingdom 



23 

which was exceptionally peaceful and orderly. 
His successors, Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah 
(1580-1612) and Muhammad Qutub Shah (1612- 
1626), who had inherited a well-established 
kingdom from their predecessors, were in a position 
to develop it internally, whiph they really did by 
their unceasing efforts. The city of Hyderabad 
was founded by Muhammad Quli in y>91, and 
was regarded as a medieval wonder due to v tyie 
art of rectangular town planning and construction 
which was far ahead of the age. The city was 
lavishly decorated and equipped with Dwelling- 
houses and inns, baths and hospitals in an 
efficient manner. 

The kingdoms of the Deccan maintained their 
independence for 300 years after the down- 
fall of the Bahmani dynasty. History was, 
however, again repeated and internecine feuds 
among them led to their ^absorption firstly by the 
stronger among them and then by the great 
northern power of the Mughals who had from the 
time of Akbar begun to penetrate s outh of the 
Narbada. The final downfall of the kingdoms of 
Bijapur and Golconda came in 1686 and 1687 
when the Emperor Aurangzeb annexed them to 
the Indian Empire. 



24 

3- Modern Period 

The House of the present rulers of Hyder- 
abad was founded by Nawab Asaf Jah I, a 
distinguished general of Aurangzeb. Distinguished 
alike in war and political sagacity, he was 
appointed, after a long service under the Delhi 
Emperor, Viceroy of the Deccan in 1713, with 
the title of Nizamul Mulk, which has since 
become the hereditary title of the rulers of Hyder- 
abad. The Mughal Empire at this period was on 
the verge of decline and amid the general 
confusion, Nawab Asaf Jah had little difficulty 
in asserting himself against the advisers of the 
weak occupants of the throne of Delhi, and to 
repel the inroads of the Mabarattas who were 
harassing the western parts of his newly acquired 
territory. His autonomy was the cause of much 
jealousy at Delhi, and the court party secretly 
instructed Mubariz Khan, Governor of Khandesh, 
to oppose him by force of arms. A battle was 
fought at Shakarkheda (now in the Buldana 
District of Berar) in 1724, when Mubariz Khan 
was totally defeated and lost his life. The battle 
established the autonomy of Nawab. Asaf Jah 
Bahadur, who had meanwhile annexed Berar, and 
fixed his residence in Hyderabad. At the time 
of his death in 1748, he was recognised the ruler 



25 

of "a territory which included not only the present 
Dominions but Khandesh, Berar, Carnatic and 
practically the whole of southern India, except a 
small strip in the far south. 

The death of Nizamul Mulk Asaf Jah I gave 
rise to dynastic disputes in the Deccan, which 
were complicated by somewhat similar dissensions 
in the Carnatic. The English and the French, 
who had by now established their garrisoned 
factories on the eastern coast of India, thought it 
opportune to intervene as allies of one or the 
other of the warring rulers in the Deccan^and the 
Carnatic. The French had at first a temporary 
success in the Deccan but ultimately the English 
succeeded in ousting their rivals and establishing 
themselves as the paramount power. 

Nawab Salabat Jung Bahadur (1751-1761) 
had assigned the districts of the Northern Circars 
to the French for the payment of their troops. 
When Clive turned the tables on the French he 
ordered that Northern Circars should be occupied 
by the British troops. Later on by the treaty of 
Allahabad he obtained a grant of these districts 
along with the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and 
Orissa from the titular Emperor Shah 'Alam. 
When Nawab Nizam All Khan Bhahdur Asaf 



2S 

Jah II (1761-1803) became Nizam, he was not at 
first prepared to acquiesce in the grant of the 
Northern Circars, and the Government of Madras 
thought it expedient to conclude a treaty with 
him, by which they agreed to hold the Circars 
from him in return for an annual Peshkash. Both 
parties agreed to offer mutual assistance in time 
of war. 

Nawab Nizam Ali Khan Bahadur was 
extremely disappointed at the refusal of Sir John 
Shore, the then Governor-General of India, to 
help him at Kharla against the Maharatta Con- 
federacy, and his defeat at Kharla estranged him 
completely from the English and compelled him 
to seek friendship with the French. He increased 
the French battalions in his pay and assigned for 
their maintenance districts bordering on the 
Carnatic. It was then that Monsieur Raymond, 
a French soldier of fortune, won a powerful 
position at the court of Hyderabad. 

When Lord Wellesley came to India, .he was 
anxious to conciliate the Nizam somehow or other. 
Fortunately for the English, Monsieur Raymond 
had died in 1798 without leaving any competent 
French officer to take his place. Wellesley took full 



27 

advantage of this state of things in Hyderabad 
and succeeded in persuading the Nizam to consent 
to the disbandment of the French troops and 
sign a treaty of subsidiary alliance with the 
British. In 1800, the Nizam agreed to surrender 
to the Bast India Company all the territories 
that he had got from Mysore in 1792 and 1799 in 
lieu of the payment of the arrears of the subsid- 
iary force agreed on by the treaty of 1798. 

During the rule of Nawab Nasirujl Daulah 
Bahadur Asaf Jah IV (1829-1857) the Govern- 
merit of Nizam had to raise money by loans to 
meet the exorbitant expenses of the subsidiary 
force. An English Banking House at Hyderabad, 
Palmer & Co., made large advances and acquired 
control over the Nizam's Government. The 
usurious dealings of the firm were so repulsive 
that Metcalfe, the British Resident at Hyderabad, 
had to bring the whole affair to the notice of the 
Government of India and it was decided that 
under instructions from the Court of Directors, 
the debts due to Palmer & Co. should be paid 
off from the accumulated tribute due to the 
Nizam from the Northern Circars and the annual 
Peshkath for the assigned districts of Northern 
Circars was to be dicontinued. 



28 

The State finances were now on the lowest 
ebb. The Nizam owed a huge sum of money to 
the British Government for the financing of the 
contingent. The Governor-General, Lord Dalhousie, 
despatched Sir John Low to Hyderabad with a 
draft treaty formally transferring the possession 
of Berar in order to provide for the maintenance 
of the contingent. Sir Salar Jung I tried his best 
during his Premiership to have it altered in the 
interest of Hyderabad State but he did not 
succeed. In 1902 the territory of Berar was 
assigned to the Government of India and the 
ceded territory was attached to the Central 
Provinces. 1 



1 Under the treaty entered into between His Imperial 
Majesty the King and His Exalted Highness the Nizam in 
1936 it has been decided that in future His Exalted Highness 
would be addressed as His Exalted Highness the Nizam of 
Hyderabad and Berar and the heir-apparent of Hyderabad 
would be addressed as His Highness the Prince of Berar. 
Moreover, the suzerainty of His Exalted Highness .over his 
territory of Berar has been definitely recognised and made 
effective in a number of ways. 



29 

Hyderabad administration owes a debt of 
gratitude to Sir Salar Jung I for his untiring zeal 
to reorganise the entire system of Government. A 
regular system of revenue collection, survey and 
settlement along with the organisation of Police 
department and the establishment of criminal and 
civil courts in the districts went a long way in 
imparting efficiency to the entire administra- 
tion of the Dominions. 



When the present ruler H. E. H. Nawab Sir 
Mir Osman Ali Khan Bahadur Asaf Jah VII 
succeeded his father in 1911 the condition of 
administration called for a new orientation of 
policies and method of governance. As will be 
seen from the next chapter the 28 years of His 
Exalted Highness' rule have been a period of 
great progress in all branches of administration 
and in the general well-being of the people of his 
Dominions. The personal interest His Exalted 
Highness has always shown towards the blending 
of all that is good in western and eastern methods 
and in the synthesis of cultures that has been the 
pride ffrid mainstay of Hyderabad, led to the 
consolidation of a system which is almost unique 
in modern India. 



CHAPTER III 

PROGRESS IN RECENT YEARS 

The Administration: Since 1919 the 
administration of H. E. EL the Nizam's Dominions 
is vested in an | Executive Council consisting of a 
President and six Members. This Council has 
been granted most of the powers formerly exercis- 
ed by the Prime Minister. The Legislative Council 
consisting df elected and nominated members has 
been in existence for a much longer time and has 
provided the State with a body of laws sufficient 
for its needs in every sphere of life. 

In order to afford the people more effective 
association with Government, constitutional re- 
forms of a far-reaching character were announced 
on 17th July 1939. They are based for the most 
part on the recommendations of a predominantly 
non-official Committee. Under the new reforms 
scheme, a much enlarged Legislative Assembly, 
with an elected majority and a specific list of 
matters within its purview, is to be established. 
The basis of representation both for the Assembly 
and for all the local bodies will be functional with 
joint electorates. The new constitution also 




tflR ATTMAT) SAID KHAN, THE NAWAJ* OF THHATARI 

K. ( 1 . S T., K.(\ I. E., M. B. E., LL. 1)., PRESIDENT OF 

U. E. JT, THE NIZAM'S EXECUTIVE ( 1 ()UNCIL AND 

(CHANCELLOR OK THE OSMANMA i:\IVKRSITY 



31 

provides for the setting up of a number of 
Advisory Committees on such subjects as Religious 
affairs, Finance, Education, Agriculture, Indus- 
tries, etc., to advise the members of Government 
concerned on those matters, for the reconstitu- 
tion of the Hyderabad Civil Service Committee, 
the setting up of Appointment Boards to control 
recruitment to Government services, and the 
establishment of Panchayats and the reconstitu- 
tion and expansion of existing District Boards and 
Town Municipalities. A new press legislation is 

also on the anvil. 



Local Government: The beginning of Local 
Self-Governmnnt can be traced to the last quarter 
of the 19th century when there was a Municipality 
at the capital and District and Taluqa Boards for 
each District and Taluqa, consisting of officials 
and non-officials all nominated by Government. 
But with the passage of time and in pursuance of 
the present policy, the Municipal Corporation of 
Hyderabad has been remodelled on the lines of 
the Bombay Corporation and, with a majority of 
elected members, enjoys extensive powers of 
control in matters of finance and administration. 
The Municipal Power Regulation was passed in 
1936 and granted to a number of Municipalities 



32 

elected majorities with the right to manage their 
own affairs. Special care is being taken to ensure 
an increased representation of the agricultural 
population on the District Boards. Government, 
however, continue to take an interest in the 
Civic progress of the towns and districts and have 
provided some of them with electric light and 
water-supply systems on modern lines. In the 
Capital itself a body called the City Improvement 
Board consisting of officials and non-officials has 
been entrusted with the work of improving and 
beautifying the city and clearing the slums. It is 
impossible to do full justice here to its stupendous 
work which will be apparent to the visitor 
wherever he goes in the city. 

Justice: The Judicial administration of 
the State is controlled by a High Court the 
independence of which has been secured by a 
Royal Charter. Under the High Court there are 
the usual Sessions Courts, Districts Judges' Courts 
and Munsiffs' Courts manned by graduates in law 
or members of the Hyderabad Civil Service. One 
of the most important reforms in the Judicial 
administration of the State has been the separa- 
tion of the judicial and the executive functions 
without in any way undermining the prestige or 




HOX'HLR XAWAU MAHDE YAH JHKG 

MNAN'CE AXI) KOrCATIdN MKMBKR 
rfK rilAXCKLLOR, OSMANIA T'XIVERSrTV 



33 

the authority of the Revenue Officers who at one 
time exercised Magisterial powers. Another impor- 
tant reform has been the introduction of trial by 
jury in the Original side of the High Court. 
The course of justice has been made more speedy 
and on an average nearly 77 per cent of the 
Civil and 95 per cent of the Criminal Cases are 
disposed of before the year is out. 

Finance, Revenue and Taxation: Hyderabad 

is one of the most lightly taxed States in the 
world. The principal sources of income is land 
revenue which is supplemented by inccline from 
Excise and 5 per cent ad valorem Customs duty 
on imports from which many articles are exempt 
on economic grounds. The budget for the 
current year (1941-42) estimates the total receipt 
at Rs. 915.73 lakhs, while the total expenditure 
is calculated at Rs. 913.77 lakhs. 

The income of the State has been steadily 
and progressively increasing during the last 19 
years chiefly owing to the introduction of the Rt. 
Hon'ble Sir Akbar Hydari's budgetary system 
known as the "Departmentalisation of Finances' 5 
underwhictf allotments for various departments 
are made under triennial contracts on the basis 
of their annual average expenditure. As a result 



34 

of this scheme substantial reserves have been 
built up, e.g., the Famine Reserve of nearly 3 
crores, the Industrial Trust Fund Reserve of over 
2i crores, the Debt Redemption Reserve of nearly 
3i crores, the Paper Currency Reserve of over 18 
crores, the Osmania Sicca Stabilisation Reserve 
of 3j crores and the Deposits and General Reserve 
of over 11 crores. 

Agriculture Rural Reconstruction: Agricul- 
ture is the basis of the economic life of the State 
and Government are utilising all their resources 
to ameliorate the condition of the peasant. The 
State Agricultural Department has, by research, 
demonstration and propaganda, succeeded in 
making the peasant familiar with improved seeds 
and modern methods of cultivation. By an 
enactment called the Marketing Act he has been 
enabled to sell his produce at a maximum price. 
Various measures have been adopted to give 
relief to agriculturists especially in times of 
scarcity, and a Famine Relief Fund now amount- 
ing to nearly 3 crores has been created for the 
prevention of famine and giving relief to sufferers 
from its ravages. Moreover, special reinissions 
have been sanctioned owing to seasonal conditi&ns 
and a remission amounting to forty lakhs of 




irr. lioN'uu-: MI; XKHXK IIVDXIM 
\ XXYAP. iiVDKU v v\\ xz .n ,; 
ADru, i*. <^ 1., D. < . -, 1-1-. i>. 
L.^H: r i in: <K\I XMA 
rxiv.;u-;i rv 




THE DEMONSTRATION PLOT OF GAORANI (12) 
COTTON ON CHALKA SOIL IN TELINGANA 



35 

rupees was granted in commemoration of His 
Exalted Highness' Silver Jubilee 4j years ago. 
In addition, by recent legislation of Land Alien- 
ation, Debt Conciliation and Mony -lenders' 
Acts, the rights of the tenants have been greatly 
protected. 

Apart from encouraging nascent village 
industries, the State has formulated a comprehen- 
sive scheme of Rural uplift and a Central Board 
for Rural Reconstruction serves as a co-ordinating 
agency for the work of District and Taluqa 
organisations consisting of official and non-official 
members. It is hoped that improved methods of 
cultivation and cattle-breeding and the encourage- 
ment of remunerative cottage industries will be 
greatly facilitated through this organisation along 
with rural education, public health and general 
welfare. The number of villages selected for the 
rural uplift work is 120. And the selection is so 
made that in each of the 104 Taluqas of the State, 
one or more villages are taken up for the purpose. 
The number of Co-operative Societies has now 
reached 3,638 and the total working capital of all 
the Societies amounts to nearly 3 crores. It is 
gratifying to. observe that this useful movement 
has become self-supporting and in spite of serious 
handicaps has made considerable progress. 



36 

Industrial Development : Government have 
set apart a crore of rupees to form an Industrial 
Fund. The Government have further advanced 
loans to this fund and with the profits added on, 
the corpus of this fund now amounts to over 2 
crores. The corpus of this fund is invested in 
large scale industries like the Shahabad Cement 
Company (now amalgamated with the Associated 
Cement Co.), the Osman Shahi and Azam Jahi 
Mills, Wazir Sultan Tobacco Co.), the Nizam 
Sugar Factory and Sirpur Paper Mills and the 
interest accruing from these investments is used 
for heljftng small scale industries and students 
desirous of obtaining industrial education. The 
Shahabad Cement Company has the most modern 
cement-making and power-producing plant avai- 
lable and yields an annual output of 140,000 tons 
of Portland cement which is used by Railways and 
Public Works Departments both in and outside 
the State. There are a number of weaving, ginn- 
ing and pressing mills, factories for the manufac- 
ture of cigarettes and matches, rice and oil mills 
and button factories. There are six textile mills 
situated in the Dominions which are producing 
approximately 15 million Ibs. of cloth and 21 
million Ibs. of yarn annually. Of these the Osman 
Shahi Mills at Nanded and the Azam Jahi Mill* 



37 

at Warangal annually producing between them 
nearly 10 million Ibs. of cloth deserve special 
mention. A very large sugar factory with 
a share capital of 35 lakhs has been erected 
at Bodhan in the Nizam sagar canal area. 
The Paper Mills which are being construct- 
ed at Sirpir with Government support 
are expected to produce 5 to 6 thousand tons of 
paper. There are a number of cottage industries, 
the economic and artistic value of which cannot 
be exaggerated. The State takes pride in the 
fine workmanehip of its Bidri-ware, its Warangal 
Carpets, its Karimnagar Silver Work, its Nirmal 
Toy industry, the Gold Lacework of Paithan and 
the Himroo weaving of Aurangabad. 

Communications : The State of Hyder- 
abad is in the proud and unique position of having 
within its limits the largest system of railway in 
any Indian State and of being the pioneer in the 
field of Road Transport operated and controlled 
by a State Railway Administration. 

State Railway: The Nizam's State Railway 
System, comprises 1,360 miles of open line, 688 
miles being of 5 ft. 6 in. or broad gauge, and 672 
miles of 3 ft. 5-3/8 in. or metre gauge. The Railway 
system connects with the adjoining railways 



38 

at five junctions situated at or near the State 
boundary and affords excellent facilities for the 
import and export trade of the State and in 
addition, forms portions of through routes bet- 
ween Northern and Southern India and between 
the East and West coasts. Of the 1,360 miles of 
Railway, H. E. H. the Nizam's Government owns 
1,302 miles, the balance of 58 miles being owned 
by the Government of India but worked for them 
by H. E. H.'s Government. 

The total capital investment by H. E. H.'s 
Government up to end of March 1941 in the 
1,302 miles of Railways owned by them amounts to 
15 crores of rupees and the gross earnings for the 
year ending 31st March 1941 were approximately 
Rs. 254 lakhs and the net earnings Rs. 136 lakhs 
representing a return of 9 per cent of the capital 
investment. 

State Road Transport Services. The State 
of Hyderabad has also given a definite lead in 
India as a result of the comprehensive scheme for 
the co-ordination of Rail and Road transport 
which has been introduced by H. E. H.'s Govern- 
ment. A small beginning was made in 1932 by 
operating 27 vehicles over 280 route miles and by 
the end of 31st March 1941 the total fleet increas- 




e 
6," 



w 2 

M 

J 

H ^ 

5 



r - QQ 

H 

^ ,, -t! 

v ^ ^a 



X H G 



fc S 
- K 
K F 







39 

ed to 342 motor vehicles and the route mileage 
served reached 4, 142 miles representing over 80 
per cent of the total length of main roads in the 
Dominions. 

This Rail and Road Transport co-ordination 
in Hyderabad State has eliminated wasteful com- 
petition, has provided cheaper and better means 
of transport and opened up hitherto inaccessible 
regions to trade and traffic. The State Railway 
Bus services run to scheduled advertised times 
and the advantages of regular time-table services 
providing both comfort and reliability Imve been 
fully realised and appreciated by the travelling 
public. 

Air Transport Services. A further develop- 
ment in the co-ordination of all forms of transport 
in Hyderabad State was achieved by the forma- 
tion early in 1938 of an Air Department under 
the State Railway Administration. This Depart- 
ment has been responsible for the training of per- 
sonnel for air line operation, for the operation 
of charter services, for the loan of machines and 
technical staff to the State Aero Club and for the 
construction of aerodromes in districts. Landing 
grounds at Aurangabad and Adilabad were con- 
structed and opened to traffic in February 1941 



40 

and the construction of a landing ground at Bidar 
is now in progress. The aerodrome at Begampet 
serving the capital ranks is one of the largest and 
best equipped aerodromes in India. 

Public Health : Adequate facilities exist for 
medical relief. At the Headquarters of every dis- 
trict there are hospitals in charge of Civil Sur- 
geons with high qualifications, and dispensaries in 
every Taluqa. besides 151 Unani and other dis- 
pensaries interspersed in the Dominions. Fifteen 
"travelling dispensaries" carry medical aid to the 
villages and a cinema van is constantly on tour 
exhibiting propaganda films on health subjects. 
The increase in the health service which is now 
readily available to areas threatened by serious 
outbreaks of epidemic is producing good results. 
Two Tuberculosis Clinics were started in Hyder- 
abad city. A Sanatorium is under construction 
at Anantagiri hills which will accommodate 250 
patients. There is another Tuberculosis Hospital 
at Lingampalli. Lady Assistant-Surgeons are 
attached to all hospitals for the treatment of 
women patients. Apart from the special female 
ward attached to the splendidly equipped 
Osmania General Hospital, there is a separata 
Zenana Hospital, while a hospital for children is 



41 

shortly expected to come into existence. The 
Hyderabad Medical School, founded in the thir- 
ties of the last century, has provided medical men 
for the State for a century and has recently 
developed into the Osrmania University Medical 
College, recognised by the British Medical Associa- 
tion. 

More than 105 lakhs have so far been 
spent on drainage works, while the total length 
of sewers completed is about 149 miles 6 furlongs 
being definitely the largest gravitation system in 
India. Already over a crore of rupees &as been 
spent on it and the complete scheme will cost 
more than a crore and a quarter. Nearly 32'73 
miles of cement concrete dustless roads have 
been constructed at a cost of more than 30 lakhs. 
Parks and playgrounds have been provided and 
modern appliances have been supplied for child- 
ren's exercises and recreation. 

Education Fully convinced of the impos- 
sibility of effecting enduring reforms without 
rousing the consciousness of the people by a judi- 
cious system of education, the authorities have 
devoted attention to its wide diffusion among the 
masses. Early in the reign of His Exalted High- 
ness a drastic reorganisation of the whole educa- 



42 

tional system was undertaken at the suggestion 
and under the guidance of the Rt. Hon'ble Sir 
Akbar Hydari with the result that during the 
first 27 years of His Exalted Highness' reign, the 
number of schools rose from 1,052 to 5,224 and 
that of scholars from 65,104 to 3,84,696 and the 
total expenditure from 9J lakhs to over a crore 
of rupees, that is, nearly 12i per cent of the gross 
Revenue of the State. Government have sanc- 
tioned a new scheme for Primary Schools which 
provided for the conversion of all Local Fund 
Schools into Shahi Schools and the expansion of 
Primary ^Education under a five-year programme. 
Girls' .education has also made a satisfactory pro- 
gress, "the number of students having increased 
from 6,000 to 57,592, attending 783 Girls' schools. 
The Osmania University College for Women forms 
the apex of female education in the State and 
teaches in certain subjects up to the M. A. and 
M. Sc. standard. Recently a scheme has been 
passed by the University whereby it will be pos- 
sible to group domestic science as an alternative 
to some other subjects right up to the B. A. 
degree. 

With a view to preventing possible unem- 
ployment among the educated classes and in 
order to equip them better to face the exigencies 



y 



W 

PC: 



ft 
o 

V. 

ft 




ft 

u-l 

ft 



p ,/> 

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43 

of modern economic life, an Official Employment 
Bureau has been set up and a comprehensive 
scheme for the reorganisation of education pro- 
mulgated. According to this scheme, education 
in the State is being organised in four stages each 
with a definite aim, and facilities will be provided 
for the training of boys with a practical aptitude 
who wish to proceed beyond the primary stage, 
but have no literary bent. The high and techni- 
cal stage will be followed at special situations for 
preparing students for the University, clerical, 
agricultural and technical training. Lfnder the 
new scheme the University stage will be unbroken 
by any intermediate examination and a student 
will be able to finish the University education in 
3 years. 

Broadcasting The State has a Broadcasting 
Department under which there are two trans- 
mitting stations, one at Saroornagar near the 
capital and the other at Aurangabad. The 
fprmer started functioning in 1939, while the 
latter has been opened by the Rt. Hon'ble Sir 
Akbar Hydari, in April 1941. The power of the 
.transmitter installed at Saroornagar is 5 kwt., 
or 25 times more than that of the old transmitter. 
The Aurangabad Station which is of 1/2 kwt., is 



44 

primarily meant to cater for local needs with 
emphasis on rural broadcasting. Programmes 
from the Hyderabad Station are issued in Urdu 
and English, while the Aurangabad Station 
broadcasts in Urdu and Marathi. 



H 
fc 

O 

M 
U 



O 

02 


< 

t I 

O 
c/: 




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B 

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Cf2 



CHAPTER IV 

THE OSMANIA UNIVERSITY 

The Osmania University which was esta- 
blished by a Royal Charter in 1918 is the first 
attempt in India to impart University Educa- 
tion through an Indian language, while retaining 
English as a compulsory subject of study. For 
over half a century, higher education in the State 
was controlled by the Madras Unive^pity, but 
the results were so discouraging that in 1917, the 
Right Hon'ble Sir Akbar Hydari, Kt., P. c., 
D. c. L M LL. D>, then Secretary to His Exalted 
Highness' Government in the Educational 
Department, submitted a memorandum to His 
Exalted Highness in which after surveying the 
existing conditions and discussing the disadvant- 
ages of imparting knowledge through the medium 
of a foreign language, he recommended the in- 
auguration of a University which should be both 
an examining and a teaching body and in addi- 
tion to this should undertake to compile and 
translate books, using Urdu as the medium of 
instruction and examination, as it is the official 
language of the State and is widely understood 



46 

and spoken not only in the Dominions but 
throughout India. The standard of English 
which is compulsory is nearly the same as in other 
Universities. The alumni of the University are 
thus enabled to keep in touch with the cur- 
rents of thought in the English-speaking world 
as they can freely consult English books on the 
subjects they study. 

Constitution. The Council which is the 
governing body of the University is entrusted 
with general supervision and control over the 
constituent colleges. It consists of His Excel- 
lency the President of the State Executive 
Council, the Hon'ble Members of the Council in 
charge of the Educational, Finance and Ecclesias- 
tical Departments, the Pro-Vice-Chancellor, the 
Secretary to Government in the Educational 
Department, the Director of Public Instruction, 
the Principals of constituent colleges and five 
members nominated by Government. His Exalted 
Highness is the Patron of the University, H. E. 
the President, the ex-officio Chancellor and 
Hon'ble the Education Member, the ex-officio 
Vice-Chancellor. A paid Pro-Vice-Chancellor is 
in administrative control of all institutions under 
the University. 



47 

\ 

The Senate which is supreme in academic 
matters consists of not less than 40 and not more 
than 70 members. The Syndicate is the busi- 
ness committee of the Senate and consists of not 
less than five and not more than seven members 
of the Senate. The Faculties which consist mainly 
of the professorial staff are the Academical Com- 
mittees of the Senate entrusted with the framing 
of the curricula and arranging for examinations 
and other cognate matters. 

Faculties. The University is of the unitary 
teaching type, providing instruction in all sub- 
jects of University* study. The Faculties of 
Theology, Arts, Science, Law and Engineering 
are located in the University area at Adikmet, 
while the Medical and Training Colleges are 
located in the City owing to the absence of neces- 
sary facilities in the University campus for the 
present. The Women's College which has Inter- 
mediate, B. A., B. Sc. and M. Sc. classes is also 
located in the City. All these Colleges will be 
transferred to Adikmet as soon as their projected 
buildings are constructed. Besides Intermediate 
classes 'attached to the University, there are four 
Intermediate Colleges at Aurangabad, Warangal, 
Gulbarga and in the City of Hyderabad. 



48 

The University commenced its tutorial work 
with the opening of the Osmania University 
College in August 1919. A beginning was made 
with the first year class and higher classes were 
added year by year till the fiwt B. A. 
Examination was held in 1923 and the first 
M. A. and LL. B. Examinations in 1925. The 
University now confers the degrees of B. A., M. A., 
B. Sc. and M. Sc., LL. B., M. B. B. S., B. E., Ph. 
D., Diploma in Education and the degree of M. Ed. 

Bureau for Translation & Compilation. The pro- 
vision of text-books required for the University 
courses was the first necessity of the Osmania 
University and accordingly a Bureau for the trans- 
lation and compilation of suitable books on the 
higher branches of knowledge was established in 
1918. This institution has been instrumental in 
enriching the Urdu language with books on various 
subjects and has already published 291 books in 
Arts and Sciences, while 65 books are in the Press 
and 63 are being compiled, translated or revised. 

Staff and Students. The sanctioned strength 
of the Teaching Staff is at present 160 of Whom 33 
are in the professorial grade, while 42 are Readers 
and 85 Lecturers. Out of these 23 Professors, 29 



49 

<\ 

Readers and 35 Lecturers are attached to the 
University College. The number of students at the 
beginning of the academic year 1940-1941 was 
2,256 of which 1,789 were reading in the Faculties 
of Arts and Sciences, 49 in the Faculties of Theol- 
ogy, 159 in the Faculty of Law, 159 in the 
Faculty of Medicine, 61 in the Faculty of Engineer- 
ing and 39 in the Faculty of Education. 

The Library. There are nearly 45,000 books in 
the University Library almost equally divided 
between the Western and the Oriental 
Sections, the books in both Sections 
being classified and catalogued according 
to the Dewy decimal system of classification. The 
Manuscript Section is also rich, possessing a large 
number of rare works in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, 
Sanskrit, Telugu and Kanarese. The recently 
acquired collection of Palm Leaf MSS. in the local 
languages is very valuable and a short descriptive 
catalogue of the MSS. in all these languages is 
under preparation. The Library is thus well 
equipped for research in various branches of study. 

University Training Corps. The University 
possesses, a Training Corps which came into exist- 
eace'in February 1936. A member of the staff is 
in charge of it and he is assisted by two Instructors 
deputed by the Army Headquarters. 



50 

/ 

Hostels. It is the aim of the University to 
provide residential accommodation to all its 
students ultimately. For the present there are two 
well-built double storied hostels and three "tempor- 
ary hostels which provide accommodation for 
about 500 students. These hostels which are 
lighted with electricity and are provided with 
modern sanitary conveniences are now entirely 
full. In addition to the College fees, the boarders 
pay an inclusive charge of Rs. 17 p. m'., while in 
two of the temporary hostels (cheaper hostels) 
they pay Rs. 9 p. m. only which covers dining 
hall, establishment, light, water and other charg- 
es. No charge is made for rent, medical assistance 
or medicines. Each hostel is managed by a 
Warden under the general supervision and control 
of the Pro-Vice-Chancellor. 

University Buildings. A site of about 1600 acres 
was selected near Adikmet, a suburb of the City, 
for the University Town, where buildings of the 
University are being constructed at an estimated 
cost of two crores of rupees. As these buildings 
would take some time to be built, temporary 
buildings were constructed at a cost of 10 'lakhs of 
rupees. The Science Departments, the Engineering 
College, the Translation Bureau and the University 



p 
to 

ta-4 

% 
*t 






X E H 

.* HH -^ 



I 5 ^ UH 

i5 -r ^ w 



51 

Press are housed in the temporary buildings. 
Amongst the permanent buildings the Arts College 
representing a blending of the old Hindu and 
Muslim styles of architecture was completed in 
December 1939 at a cost of 29 lakhs of rupees. The 
Faculties of Theology, Arts and Law as well as 
the Library and the University offices are housed 
in this building. Two commodious double-storied 
hostel buildings are also ready. The permanent 
buildings of the Physics, Chemistry and Biology 
Departments are nearing completion and the con- 
struction of the permanent Engineering College 
and additional hostels is proposed to be laken up 
shortly. Among the proposed buildings on which 
work has not been started yet are the Senate 
House, the Library, the Museum, Training, Law, 
Agriculture and Medical Colleges, the Hospital, 
Stadium, Swimming pool and the Professors' 
quarters. 

Nizamiah Observatory. The Nizamiah Obser- 
vatory which was established in 1908 was trans- 
ferred to the control of the Osmania University 
in 1919. The principal equipment consists of two 
equatorial telescopes, an 8-inch photographic and 
a 15-inch visual refractor together with a small 
transit instrument and Chronograph, and some 



52 

other miscellaneous apparatus. The Observatory 
is one of the institutions participating in the 
great International undertaking of the Carte de 
Ciel and has completed the measuring of the 
photographs in the section allotted to it, viz., 
Decl. 170 to 23 and is now engaged in the Cata- 
logue of the section 36 to 39. The 15-inch teles- 
cope erected about ten years ago, is used for visual 
observations, especially for observing systematic- 
ally variable stars with faint minima. The 
principal publications of the Nizamiah Observa- 
tory consist of eight volumes of the Hyderabad 
Astrographic Catalogue and a number of short 
papers in the leading Astronomical Journals. 
The Observatory is also equipped with two Milne- 
Shaw Seismographs for recording earthquakes and 
the readings of the seismograms are forwarded to 
Oxford for inclusion in the International Seismo- 
logical Summary. There is in addition a Meteoro- 
logical Observatory as well as a pilot balloon 
station, the observations being taken in co-opera- 
tion with the Meteorological Department of the 
Government of India. 

The Dairat-ul-Maarif. The Dairat-u]-Maarif 
was founded in 1886 for the publication of rare 
Arabic books. The institution has an endowment 



53 

of Rs. 5 lakhs which brings an annual income of 
Rs. 30,000. It was placed under the control of 
the University on the death of its founder Nawab 
Imadul Mulk Bahadur in 1926. H. E. the Presi- 
dent, Executive Council and Chancellor of the 
University, is now the Chairman of the Executive 
Committee and Hon'ble Nawab Mahdi Yar Jung 
Bahadur, Education Member and Vice-Chancellor, 
is its Secretary. The total number of Arabic 
books published by this institution is 114 and 
some of these are in four to twelve volumes. Its 
publications are in great demand not only in 
India but in Egypt, Arabia, Afghanistan and 
Europe. 

Research. The University Library and 
Laboratories are well equipped and provide ample 
facilities for original work in many subjects such 
as, History, Philosophy, Persian, Arabic, Urdu, 
Telugu, Marathi, Kanarese, Sanskrit, Theology, 
Chemistry, Physics, Botany and Zoology. A 
candidate has to submit a thesis for his M. A. or 
M. Sc. degree. The degree of Ph. D. has been 
instituted in the Faculties of Arts, Science and 
Theology. Research Scholarships of the value 
of Rs. 50 per mensem are granted to deserving 



54 

students working for Ph. D. degrees. Special 
Scholarships are set apart for Research in Telugu, 
Marathi and Kanarese. The Research Journal 
of the Osmania University, issued once a year, 
publishes the original work carried out by mem- 
bers of the staff and research students. 

University Budget. The University Budget 
for 1350 F. (Oct. 1940 -Oct. 1941) amounts to 
0. S. Rs. 21,16,819 (equal to B. G. Rs, 18,14,416) 
out of which over 7 lakhs are allotted to the 
University College, one lakh to the Women's Col- 
lege, about 2 lakhs to the Medical College and 
about 3 lakhs to the Engineering College. 



CHAPTER V 
Archaeological Monuments 

Archaeological work in Hyderabad. His 

Exalted Highness the Nizam's Government has 
always shown a deep interest in the exploration 
and conservation of the archaeological remains of 
the Dominions ; and as early as 1840 large sums 
of money were spent on the survey and trie copy- 
ing of the Ajanta frescoes under the expert guidance 
of Sir James Fergusson and Major Robert Gill. 
Later, the Hyderabad State financed liberally the 
various archaeological missions which carried out 
exploratory work and recommended conservation 
measures for the important monuments of the 
Dominions. These missions were headed by Major 
Cole, James Burgess, John Griffiths and Lady 
Herringham. But as the preservation and study 
of monuments require systematic and continuous 
work the State authorities, among whom the 
name of the Right Hon'ble Sir Akbar Hydari, for 
initiation and keen interest, must be mentioned, 
in 1914 entered into correspondence with the 



56 

Director General of Archaeology in India and 
with his advice and co-operation constituted an 
Archaeological Department in the Dominions and 
appointed Mr. Ghulam Yazdani as its first 
Director. 

The Department has, since its inauguration, 
not only preserved all the principal monuments 
of the Dominions, but made excavations at 
several prehistoric and protohistoric sites and 
established a museum in Hyderabad for the 
exhibition of genuine specimens of the local arts 
and crafts. A vast literature in the form of 
monographs, guide-books and illustrated articles 
has also been compiled, in which the requirements 
of the serious student and the ordinary reader 
have been fully considered. 

As several of the monuments have an import- 
ant bearing on the art and culture of the East 
and even of the West, utmost care has been 
observed and every scientific method has been 
employed by the Department to preserve such 
relics of India's past glory. Take, for example, 
the conservation of the frescoes of Ajanta which 
by the passage of time and the inclemencies of 
weather had decayed to such an extent that the 



57 

painted surface was falling off in flakes and 
perished at the gentlest touch. 

To give an idea of the expenditure incurred 
and the solicitude shown, mention may be made 
of the appointment with liberal remuneration of 
two Italian experts, Professor Cecconi and Count 
Orsini, for the preservation of Ajanta frescoes for 
two seasons 1920-21 and 1921-22. But this 
expenditure was, however, very small in compari- 
son with the vast sums spent on the building of 
roads and bridges in order to make Ajanta easily 
accessible to tourists and lovers of ftrt. The 
newly constructed road through the Fardapur 
Ghat which leads from Aurangabad to Ajanta is 
now a most pleasant drive, offering lovely views 
of the Ajanta valley and the Khandesh plains. 

The concern and anxiety for the conservation 
and study of the Ajanta frescoes has been so great 
that along with the measures enumerated above a 
systematic scheme has been carried out to repro- 
duce the frescoes by photographic process, in 
order to keep for posterity an authentic record of 
this priceless heritage of Indian art. The scheme 
has been eminently successful; and the two 
volumes (Oxford 1930-33), containing the photo- 
graphic copies of the frescoes of Caves I-II with 



58 

an authoritative study of them from the artistic 
and iconographic points of view, have been wel- 
comed by scholars and connoisseurs all over the 
world. 

Richness of Archaeological remains in the Domi- 
nions . H. E. H. the Nizam's Dominions possess a 
vast array of archaeological remains, varying from 
pre-historic and protohistoric antiquities to 
Buddhist, Hindu and Jain pagodas, and Moslem 
shrines, and even Christian tombs. Among pre- 
historic antiquities agate knives, chipped imple- 
ments of white quartz, and polished celts and 
axes have been found in the Aurangabad, Karim- 
nagar, Warangal, Raichur and Gulbarga Dist- 
ricts. The megalithic tombs exist in great 
abundance in Telingana and the southern parts 
of the Dominions, and when excavated they 
disclose a large variety of polished pottery, 
weapons, and iron and bronze utensils. The 
Archaeological Department, Hyderabad, has also 
discovered certain 6 marks ' on the pottery dug 
out from these graves which on account of their 
lose resemblance to the Pali and also to the 
old Cretan and Mycenian characters have been 
considered by some scholars to be the original 
form of the Indian alphabet. 



59 

Among the Buddhist monuments the rock- 
cut temples of Ajanta and Ellora are well-known. 
The caves at the former place consist of twenty- 
four monasteries (viharas), and five cathedrals 
(chatty as), all of which have been excavated in 
a wall of almost perpendicular rock, about 259 
feet high, sweeping round in a hollow semi-circle 
with the Waghara stream below and a wooded 
rocky promontory jutting out of its opposite 
banks. The chaityas are usually about twice as 
long as they are wide, the largest being 94 r -6 lf by 
41 f -3". The back or inner end of the tihaityas is 
almost circular, the roofs are lofty and vaulted, 
some originally ribbed with woods, others with 
stone cut in imitation of wooden ribs. A colonnade 
hewn out of the solid rock runs round each, 
dividing the nave from the aisles. The columns 
in the most ancient caves are plain octagonal 
pillars without bases or capitals, while in later 
excavations they are elaborately carved. With- 
in the circular end of the chaitya stands the 
daghoba (relic-holder), a solid mass of rock, con- 
sisting of a cylindrical base supporting a cupola 
(garbha), which in turn is surmounted by a 
square capital or * tee ' (tor an). The twenty -four 
viharas, or Buddhist monasteries, containing cells 



60 

are usually square in form, supported by rows 
of pillars, either running round them separating 
the great central hall from the aisles, or disposed 
in four equi-distant lines. In the larger caves 
of this type, a veranda cut out of the rock, with 
cells at either end, shades the entrance; the 
great hall occupies the middle space, with a 
small chamber behind and a shrine containing 
a figure of the Buddha enthroned. 

The carvings in the earliest caves represent 
the umbrella the daghoba (relic-holder), the chailya 
(window) and the rail-berm, which are all 
emblematic of the Buddha and of the religious 
shrine dedicated to him. In the later caves the 
walls of the aisles, the columns and entablatures 
of pillars and the relic shrines are covered with 
belts of elaborate tracery, pretty statuettes, 
lively and well executed elephants, hunting 
scenes, human figures and faces all tastefully 
rendered. 

The paintings at Ajanta which originally 
existed in almost all the caves there, supply a 
more vivid picture of the feelings and aspirations 
of the Buddhists, during the period of their 
greatest prosperity in India, than can be obtained 
from any other source, and their artistic value is 



much higher than that of the sculptures. "I find 
the work,'* writes Mr. Griffiths, "so accomplished 
in execution, so consistent in convention, so 
vivacious and varied in design, and full of such 
evident delight in beautiful form and colour that 
I cannot help ranking it with some of the early 
art which the world has agreed to praise in Italy. 
The Ajanta workmanship is admirable, long 
subtle curves are drawn with great precision in a 
line of unvarying thickness with one sweep of the 
brush, the touch is often bold and vigorous, the 
handling broad, and in some cases the impasto is 
as solid as in the best Pompeian work. The 
draperies too are thoroughly understood, and 
though the folds may be conventionally drawn, 
they express most thoroughly the peculiarities of 
the oriental treatment of unsewn cloth. For the 
purposes of art education no better examples 
could be placed before an Indian art student than 
those to be found in Ajanta." 

The temples and monasteries of EUora, to 
which the three great religious sects the 
Buddhists, the Hindus and the Jains have each 
contributed in an almost equal degree, have 
been mentioned in history by the celebrated Arab 
Geographer Mas'udi in the tenth century. The 



62 

Buddhist caves, twelve in number, are situated at 
the south-end of the series; the Indra Sabha or 
Jain group, consisting of five caves, lies at the 
other extremity (north); the Brahmanical caves, 
which number seventeen, are between the other 
two groups. In age the caves vary from about the 
fifth to the ninth century, and important inscrip- 
tions have been found in them. The most inter- 
esting cave at Ellora is the Kailasa temple, one of 
the most wonderful specimens of architectural art 
in India. It is an immense monolithic temple 
separated from the surrounding rock, and elabor- 
ately carved outside and inside. The court in which 
it stands is two hundred and seventy feet long, 
and about a hundred and fifty feet wide. Portions 
of the temple in the centre have at some period 
been most elaborately painted, and even now there 
are some fragments which still retain much of their 
original beauty. "The lofty basement of the 
temple", says Mr. Burgess, "isof itself a remarkable 
conception, with its row of huge elephants, lions 
and griffins in every possible attitude tearing one 
another or feeding. And then the great hall 
above with its sixteen pillars and more pilasters, 
all carved with different details of sculpture, its 
balcony porches at the sides, and double pavilions 
before the front porch, its vestibule to the 



63 

sanctuary with large sculptures on each side and 
its five shrines round the platform, all testify 
to the attempt made to rival and outdo all 
previous temples of the kind. 1 ' 

The structural temples of the Dominions are 
no less magnificent than the rock-cut pagodas, 
and the Naganatha temple of Aundh'i (Parbha-ni 
District), the Great Temple of Palampet (Waran- 
gal District), the Mahadeva temple of Tttagi 
(Raichur District), and the Vishnu temple of 
Dichpalli (Nizamabad District) are each a gem of 
the Mediaeval Hindu architecture. The Naga- 
natha temple has a close resemblance in architec- 
tural design and sculpture decoration to the 
famous temple at Halebid, and the remarks of 
Fergusson on the latter building may appropriate- 
ly be quoted here as they fully apply to the 
Naganatha temple. 

" It must now, however, be considered that 
it is only for patient industry that this building 
is remarkable. The mode in which the eastern 
face is broken up by the larger masses, so as to 
give height and play of light and shade, is a 
better way of accomplishing what the Gothic 
architects attempted by their transepts and 
projections. This, however, is surpassed by the 



64 

western front, where the variety of outline, and 
the arrangement and the subordination of the 
various facets in which it is disposed, must be 
considered as a masterpiece of design in its class. 
If the frieze of gods were spread along a plain 
surface, it would lose more than half its effect, 
while the vertical angles, without interfering with 
the continuity of the frieze, give height and 
strength to the whole composition. The disposi- 
tion of the horizontal lines of the lower friezes is 
equally effective. Here again the artistic com- 
bination of horizontal with vertical lines and the 
play of outline and of light and shade far 
surpass anything in Gothic art. The effects are 
just what the mediaeval architects were often 
aiming at, but which they never attained so 
perfectly as was done at Halebid." 

The salient feature of the Palampet temple is 
the figure-brackets, which spring from the should- 
er of the outer pillars and nominally support the 
ponderous Uhh'ijja beams. The brackets consist 
of female figures which remind one of their pro- 
totypes at Sanchi and other early Buddhist sites. 
The poses of the body are extremely graceful, but 
the features and the expression of the face are less 
successful and one is tempted to think that the 



65 

artists were guided by some religious convention- 
alities in their work. The floral designs and 
figures of animals carved on the temple are 
exceedingly fine and represent art of a high order. 

The Mahadeva temple at Ittagi and the 
Vishnu temple at Dichpalli besides exhibiting 
ingenuity of design in the arrangement of their 
structural parts have a wealth of carving which 
is extremely crisp and fine. The late Col. 
Meadows Taylor remarking on the Ittagi temple 
wrote : 4 *The carving on some of the pillars and 
of the lintels and architraves of the doo is quite 
beyond description. No chased work in silver or 
gold could be finer." 

In the domain of Moslem architecture some 
monuments of the Dominions take rank among 
the greatest architectural creations in the East 
to wit, the Jami* Mas j id of Gulbarga, the Ohand 
Minar of Daulatabad, the Madrasah of Mahmud 
Gawan at Bidar and the Char Minar of Hyder- 
abad. The peculiarity of the Mosque at Gulbarga 
is that its entire area, 36,720 sq. ft., unlike any 
mosque in India, is roofed over. The building is 
also, important as being the earliest Moslem 
mosque in the Deccan built of original material 
and representing the principal architectural 



forms the dome with a long clerestory, the tall, 
slim pointed arch, and the squat arch, which we 
see repeated over and over again in later Moslem 
buildings of Bijapur, Bidar and Golconda. 

The Chand Minar of Daulatabad is a tall, but 
slender minaret, 210 ft. high and 70 ft. in 
circumference near the basement. It has a 
conical apex and three large galleries built on its 
outside at various heights. The form of the apex 
and the galleries suggest Persian influence 
because they are so unlike anything in India. 

The chief importance of the Madrasah of 
Bidar, which was built in the middle of the 
fifteenth century, lies in the encaustic tiles which 
adorn the facade of the building and display a 
perfect revelry of colour. The Madrasah was in 
a flourishing condition in the time of Ferishta, 
staffed as it was by professors and divines from 
the most distant countries of Asia, and equipped 
with a library of 3,000 manuscripts. 

The Char Minar or * four minarets, ' built in 
1591, is a unique monument of its kind in India 
and in the grandeur of its conception and the 
just balance of its structural masses, combined 
with picturesqueness of detail, far surpasses the 



67 

Atala Masjid gateway and the Baland Darwaza 
of Northern India 9 and the lofty but monoton- 
ous and heavy gopurams of the south. The 
plan of the building consists of a square hall, 
having an arch in each of its faces and a lofty 
decagonal minaret at each of its angles. The 
minarets, 180 ft. high, are surmounted by small 
domes with gilt terminals, and each is surround- 
ed by three galleries. The parapet of the build- 
ing is adorned with panels of lattice work, in 
great variety of design, and below it runs a 
small arcade. Next comes an ornamental 
cornice, and below this again a larger arcade 
and another ornamental cornice. The Char 
Minar was originally designed as a gateway 
in front of the Char Kaman piazza on which 
the lofty portals of the royal palaces opened. 

Among the monuments of Hyderabad City, 
the Mecca Masjid, the Mushirabad Mosque, the 
Toli Masjid and the Golconda tombs are worthy of 
notice. The Mecca Masjid, situated to the 
south- west of the Char Minar, is a spacious build- 
ing, 225 ft. long, 180 ft. broad, 75 ft. high. It i* 
built entirely of stone and occupies a paved 
quadrangle 360 ft. square. Fifteen arches support 
the roof, which is flanked by two large towers 



88 

rising 100 feet above the pavement of the 
quadrangle. The mosque can accommodate 
10,000 worshippers. Muhammad Qutub Shah 
(1612-26) commenced the building, and after his 
death its construction was continued by his 
successors, Abdullah Qutub Shah and Abul Hasan, 
but Aurangazeb completed it. The Mushirabad 
Mosque and the Toll Masjid situated in the 
suburbs of Hyderabad, are typical of the Qutub 
Shahi style, having somewhat slender minarets 
and adorned with a lavish use of cut-plaster work. 
The former building, up to a few years ago, had a 
leaning Minar which was an object of curiosity to 
the sightseers of Hyderabad. The Minar had an 
iron core which through weight became bent at 
rather an unusual angle on one side and ultimate- 
ly broke causing the destruction of the Minar 
which now has however been thoroughly repaired. 

The tombs at Golconda form an extensive 
group, but their architecture shows evident signs 
of the decadence that was too surely invading 
art at the time they were erected. Their 
general plan is a dome standing upon a 
square base which is surrounded by an arcade of 
pointed arches. The arcade is single storied in 
the smaller tombs, but doubled in the larger 



6(1 

mausolea and flanked with minarets. The interiors; 
of the domes are laid out with intersecting arches 
in infinite variety and the middle of the floor is 
occupied by the grave which is of polished black 
stone. The shape of the grave is oblong and 
stepped with six or eight slabs diminishing above. 
The top is either bombe or flat, and the sides bear 
mortuary and devotional inscriptions in Naskh 
characters. At one time the walls and cupolas of 
all the principal tombs of Golconda were adorned 
with glazed tiles the fragments of which can be 
traced on some tombs to this day. 

Among the places of interest in Hyderabad 
the H usa in Sagar lake, the Mir Alam's tank and 
Monsieur Raymond's tomb also deserve to be 
mentioned. The first of these is a pleasing expanse 
of water 11.16 miles in circumference. A broad 
road built on the bund connects the City and 
Suburbs with Secunderabad. The bund, which is 
1 mile and 2,280 ft. long, was constructed by 
Ibrahim Qutub Shah (1550-80) at a cost of 
Rs. 254,636. 

The Mir Alam tank is a most picturesquely 
situated sheet of water being bounded on two 
sides with gently sloping undulation, beyond 
which rise low ranges of granite rocks. At the 



70 

west end is a pretty wooded island on the summit 
of which is the tomb of a Musalman saint. The 
tank is about eight miles in circumference, and 
its bund was constructed by French engineers. 
The bund is 3,360 ft. in length and consists of 21 
large granite arches laid on their sides with the 
semicircular projection opposed to the body of the 
water. The tank was built by Mir Alam, who led 
the Contingent forces of H. H. the Nizam during 
the war with Tipu Sultan in 1799. 

Monsieur Raymond's tomb consists of a 
granite obelisk 23 ft. high standing in the centre of 
an oblong platform, 180 ft. by 85 ft. broad. The 
obelisk contains no inscription, but simply the 
letters J. R. (Joachim Raymond). In front of 
the tomb is a small; flat-roofed open sided build- 
ing, supported on a number of small pillars, with 
a small recess used for the reception of the lamps 
and other articles used in decorating the tomb. 
The view from the summit of the platform is one 
of the most charming about Hyderabad. Michel 
Joachim Marie Raymond was born in France in 
1 765 so he was about forty-three years of age at 
t>he time of his death. He came to Pondicherry 
with the intention of engaging in mercantile 
pursuits in 1775, but he soon abandoned trade 



71 

for the more enticing profession of arms and 
entered the service of Tipu Sultan. He subse- 
quently joined Bussy on the return of the latter 
to India in 1783, and on Bussy's death at 
Pondicherry two years afterwards Raymond, who 
held the rank of Captain, succeeded to the 
Command of the corps and entered the service 
of H. H. the Nizam. Each anniversary of 
Raymond's death is celebrated at the tomb by a 
grand Urs, which is attended by some thousands 
of the Irregular Troops to whom his memory is 
still sacred. , 

Recent Excavations of Historic Sites. Apart 
from the preservation of monumental antiquities 
the Department is carrying out a systematic 
programme in exploring and excavating such sites 
as will throw light on the past history of the 
Deccan. Among the latest results of the excava- 
tions conducted by the Department is the discovery 
of an Andhra town which is described here briefly. 
The site is situated some 41 miles to the north- 
west of Hyderabad City, and consists of a large 
mound covering an area of nearly 100 acres and 
rising some 25 ft. higher than the adjoining 
ground. The mound is situated along the bed of 
a stream across which in comparatively recent 



72 

times, a dam has been built for storing water. 
The land above the mound was under cultivation 
until last year (1940); but occasionally after the 
rains Andhra coins of the 2nd century A. D. and 
earlier, used to be found in the area. The Depart- 
ment at once submitted proposals to the Govern- 
ment for the acquisition of the land and the 
excavations of the site. The Rt. Hon'ble Sir 
Akbar Hydari, as President of H. E. H. the 
Nizam's Executive Council, readily sanctioned the 
proposal and through the active help of Sir 
Theodore Tasker, the lie venue Member, the 
acquisition of the land was speedily arranged, 
and the excavation operations started. The 
most notable among the linds is a large number of 
terracotta figurines showing highly developed skill 
in modelling, a keen sense for realistic effect, and 
lively imagination for inner expression and 
artistic detail. These figurines represent gods and 

religious personages of Mahay ana school of the 
Buddhist faith, comprising the representations of 
the Buddha, a large number of Yakshas and 
Yakshinis and some worldly characters having a 
striking resemblance in a few cases to European 
sculptures of the classical and even later periods 
in points of technique and general expression. 



73 

The excavations have exposed to view a 
number of architectural remains, such as the bases 
of Chaityas, apsidal temples, stupas, circular relic 
chambers, and viharas, monasteries. They are 
built of large thick bricks laid in mud. Some of 
the bricks used at corners are square in design, 
measuring about 20 inches each way and 3 inches 
in thickness. The bases of ordinary houses have 
rubble foundations and the rooms are rather of 
small size, 10 to 12 ft. in length and 6 to 8 ft. in 
breadth. In some houses there are wells with 
baked-clay rings used in construction. t 

From the general character of the finds it 
appears that the people had a considerably deve- 
loped artistic taste; the principal occupation was 
agriculture, but skill in jeweller's work and pot- 
ter's craft had reached a high level. The excava- 
tions at Kondapur have just been started and 
the plan of the old town is being gradually ex- 
posed, which is calculated to unveil the early 
history of the people of this part of the world. 

Survey of prehistoric and protohistoric anti- 
quities. A systematic survey has also been 
made of the prehistoric and protohistoric antiqui- 
ties of the Dominions and a map prepared showing 
the settlements of the early man in the Deccan 



74 

with reference to his occupations and conditions 
of life in different periods. As a result of this 
survey the megalithic remains of the Dominions 
have been classified ; the principal types among 
them being cairns, cromlechs, dolmens, menhirs 
and avenues. Some examples of the 'urn-burial' 
have also been found, the urns being large enough 
to hold the body in a crouching position. In some 
urns bones in a calcined condition have been 
found, showing that the body was first cremated 
and bones afterwards placed in the urn and 
buried. As in the megalithic tombs iron imple- 
ments, such as daggers, hatchets, axes and scythes, 
have been invariably found, it is inferred that the 
tombs belong to the Iron age. In rare cases 
bronze articles have also been found, but they 
are always of a small size, such as ferrules of 
sticks, bells and small cups. Recently the Depait- 
ment has also discovered three copper swords in 
the Raichur district which bear a striking resemb- 
lance to the swords found in the Fategarh district 
some forty years ago. As these swords show a 
high class of workmanship they are apparently of 
a later date than the iron implements found in 
the megalithic tombs which are always of a crude 
type. Further, as the number of copper and 
bronze articles found so far in the Dec-can is very 



75 

small, it will not be safe at the present stage to 
infer that in India like Europe the Copper age 
preceded the Iron. A vast collection of Neolithic 
implements has also been made and as they have 
generally been found on surface and mixed with 
such antiquities as beads, conch ornaments and 
glass bangles it appears that the practice to make 
stone implements continued among primitive 
tribes even up to historic times 1000-500 B. C. 



CHAPTER VI 

PLACES OF INTEREST 

A- The City of Hyderabad and its 

Suburbs 

Golconda. Golconda, the ancient capital 
of the Qutub Shahi kings and the seat of the 
provincial governors of the still earlier Kakatiyas, 
is well-known on account of its diamond mines, 
which are exhausted now. The town fell into 
comparative insignificance after the foundation 
of its rival, Hyderabad, in 1589. Golconda still 
has a hill fort, the walls and bastions of which 
are built of large blocks of masonry, some of 
them weighing several tons. The gates are stud- 
ed with iron wrought into various fanciful 
devices and huge sharp- pointed spikes, which 
were intended to prevent elephants from batter- 
ing them in. Formerly there were eight gates, 
but the most important now are the Fateh 
Darwaza, through which the Mughal forces, after 
their victory in 1687, entered the Fort, and the 
Banjara, by which the visitor generally passes 
when proceeding from the fort to the tombs 
of the Qutub Shahi Kings. Inside the fort, be- 



MAP OF 

HYDERABAD CITY 
& SUBURBS 

Scale 9600-1 





<' 



GA6. 



77 

sides the remains of old Qutub Shahi buildings, 
there is a group of palaces called the Nau Mahla. 
They are comparatively modern, having been 
built by the earlier Nizams, but Jd^orr-jgUns are 
very artistic and their 

** 

pleasantness of the garden^ In-' which 
situated. 




About three 

Golconda Fort stand 
Qutub Shahi kings, who 

1687. The general plan of 

built upon a square base which is surrounded by 
a gallery of pointed arches. The gallery is single- 
storied in the case of the minor tombs, but it is 
doubled in the larger tombs, and the architectural 
effect is quite good, giving a certain elegance 
combined with balance. The tombs of Sultan 
Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah, the fifth king of 
the dynasty and *Abdulla Qutub Shah, the 
seventh monarch, are the most 
group. 

There is a mosque attacl 

Hayat Bakhshi Begum (mo^kw^oj^ ttte- ^Seyenttt 
king), the architecture of whiVh snows "ttf&t und/hj 
the Qutub Shahi Kings even ir&OTcmgious 



78 

ing Hindu motifs and decorative devices were 
freely used. 

Hyderabad. Hyderabad, although the 
fourth city of India in respect of population, 
appeals most to the tourist on account of its 
still retaining an Oriental glamour, which is not 
to be found in the larger cities of India. Hyder- 
bad at the same time is considered to be the most 
progressive as in excellence and beauty its roads 
and public buildings stand second to none of the 
other great cities of India. 

AraoTig its archaeological monuments the 
Char Minar, the Char Kaman, the Mecca Masjid, 
the Badshahi 'Ashur Khana and the Mushirabad 
Mosque are the most important. The Char 
Minar is a stately gateway built in the middle of 
the town. Its four arches face the four principal 
thoroughfares of the city. The Mecca Masjid is a 
grand but sombre building, begun by Muhammad 
Qutub Shah in 1614 and completed by Aurang- 
zeb in 1692. It has an extensive court (360 ft. 
square), on the southern side of which the tombs 
of all the Nizams, from the time of Nizam 'AH 
Khan, who died in 1803, are built. The Mushir- 
abad Mosque and the Toli Masjid are very 
characteristic of the Qutub Shahi style, which is 



79 

marked by a profusion of plaster decoration and 
love of minor architectural detail, such as slender 
minarets, tiny kiosks and delicate parapets and 
screens. 

His Exalted Highness the present Nizam of 
Hyderabad is fond of architecture, and during 
his reign a large number of palatial buildings 
have been constructed. As examples of these 
mention should be made of the High Court, the 
City College, the Osmania General Hospital and 
the Town Hall. In all these buildings due regard 
has been paid to the old architectural- styles of 
Hyderabad, but at the same time modern build- 
ing materials, such as cement and steel, have 
been fully utilised, and up to date principles of 
hygiene and comfort duly observed. The build- 
ings of the Osmania University, partly construct- 
ed and partly under construction, when complet- 
ed may add a new chapter to the history of the 
architecture of the Deccan, for they have been 
designed with due observance of the tradition 
and culture of Hyderabad as well as with strict 
regard to the scientific requirements of modern 
times. 

The following is a brief list of the places of 
interest in the City of Hyderabad and its suburbs:- 



80 

BadshahS 'Ashur Khana. The inner hall has 
beautiful tile-work. It was built by Muhammad 
Quli Qutub Shah in 1594. 

Baradari of Raja Chandulal. Maharaja 
Chandu Lai was the Minister and Peshkar of the 
Nizam from 1806-43. The house is highly 
ornamented and a good example of the Asaf 
Jahi architecture. 

Char Kaman. The four arches on the four- 
sides of a piazza which originally was laid out in 
front of the Royal palaces. The arches are of 
colossal size and were built in 1593. 

Char Minar. The most imposing Muslim 
building in South India. It is a gateway with 
four arches facing the four principal roads of the 
town. Built 111 1591 by Muhammad Quli Qutub 
Shah, the founder of Hyderabad. 

Chau Mahala. The palace has four 
quadrangles, one behind the other, with halls 
around them. The Durbars and all important 
State functions are held here. 

City College. Built daring the reign of 
the present Nizam. 

Daru-sh-Shifa. An old hospital built by 
Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah in 1599. 



81 

Falaknutna Palace. Built by Sir Viqar- 
ul-Umara, one of the ministers of Hyderabad, as 
a private residence. The late Nizam purchased it 
for the sum of Rs. 35 lakhs in 1897. It has a 
beautiful facade in Grecian style, the cornice 
resting on a double row of Corinthian pillars. The 
staircase to the upper floor is of marble, with 
beautiful carved balustrades supporting at inter- 
vals marble figures with candelabra. The Ball- 
room, the Dining-room, the Smoking-room and 
Bed-rooms are all artistically furnished. 

Fateh Maidan. The military sports and 
parades of His Exalted Highness the Nizam's 
birthday are held here. The name is associated 
with Aurangzeb's victory over the Qutub Shahi 
forces. 

Golconda Fort. Particulars above. 

Goiconda Tombs. Particulars above. 

Gosha Mahal Baradari. It was built by 
King Abul Hasan Tana Shah, the last ruler of 
Golconda. It is a massive structure, now used 
for masonic purposes. The building is open to 
public during the daytime, 

Hashmatpet Cairns. Two cairns of 
this site have been excavated and preserved for 
the benefit of visitors. 



82 

High Court. It is a modern building con- 
structed during the reign of His Exalted Highness 
the present Nizam at a cost of Bs. 19 lakhs. The 
style is based on the old architecture of the 
Deccan. 

Himayat Sagar Tank, The lake has been 
named after the heir- apparent. The dam has 
been built across the river 'Isi and the water stor- 
ed is utilised partly for irrigation and partly for 
drainage. 

Himayat Agricultural Farm. It has been 
established to initiate the Ryot into up to date 
scientific methods of land cultivation and farm- 
ing. 

Husain Sagar. A pleasing expanse of water, 
11.16 miles in circumference, between Secunder- 
abad and Hyderabad. The dam was built by 
Ibrahim Quli Qutub Shah in 1575. 

Hyderabad Cottage Industries. The institu- 
tion has been established to revive old cottage 
industries of Hyderabad. Visitors may purchase 
here the articles which are manufactured at the 
institution. 

Jami Masjid and Hammam. They were built 
by Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah in 1598. 



83 

Lakkar Kot. A fine specimen of the wood 
architecture of the Asaf Jahi period. 

Masjid and Hammara of Miyan Mishk. They 
were built by an Abyssinian valet of King Abu) 
Hasan Qutub Shah in 1678. 

Maula <Ali Hill. On the top of the hill is a 
shrine belonging to Shiite faith. At the foot of 
the hill towards the west and the north are some 
cromlechs and cairns. 

Mecca Masjid. It is a massive building the 
construction of which commenced during the reign 
of 'Abdulla Qutub Shah. The building was com- 
pleted by Aurangzeb after his conquest of Hyder- 
abad. 

Mint. H. E. H. the Nizam's Government 
have a large mint of their own to coin money. 
The Osmania Sicca rupee, as the Nizam's rupee is 
called, weighs 172.5 grains and contains 2 mashas 
of alloy to 9 of silver. 

Mir 'Alam Tank. It is a most picturesquely 
situated sheet of water, about 8 miles in circum- 
ference. Its dam was constructed by French 
engineers. 



84 

Mu'Azzam Jahi Market. It has been built 
during the reign of the present Nizam at a cost of 
of Rs. 4 lakhs. 

Museum. It has well-equipped sections of 
Pre-historic implements, Sculpture, Painting, 

Inscriptions, MSS., Coins, Old Arms, Bidri-ware, 
Old China and Textiles. The Museum is open to 
public from 9 to 12 in the morning and 2 to 5 in 
the afternoon on all days except THURSDAY. 

Mushirabad Mosque. It is a typical building 
of the Qutub Shahi style, having somewhat slen- 
der minaiets and adorned with a lavish use of cut 
plaster work. 

Naubat Pahar. 'Band Rock 9 so called from 
the fact that in olden times all official communica- 
tions of the Mughal emperors were proclaimed 
from this rock to the sound of music. 

Osmania General Hospital. Built during the 
reign of the present Nizam at a cost of Rs, 23 
lakhs. It is perhaps the largest hospital in South 
India. 

Osmania University. It was inaugurated in 
1918. The special feature of the University is to 
teach all subjects through the medium of Urdu 
which is the language of the court and of the 



85 

educated classes of the Dominions. English is, how- 
ever, taught as the compulsory second language 
and the standard aimed at is the same as in other 
Indian Universities. Education is imparted in the 
faculties of Theology, Arts, Science, Law, 
Medicine, Engineering and Education. 

Osmansagar Tank. The river Musi on the 
banks of which Hyderabad City is situated was 
liable to floods ; the last of which in 1908 caused 
great loss of life and property. To make this 
impossible in the future and at the same time to 
provide a plentiful supply of pure drinking water 
in the City and suburb a dam has been built 
across the river at a place called Gandipet. The 
dam is an interesting piece of modern engineering 
and has cost Rs. 54 lakhs. 

Panch Mahala. One of the old palaces of 
the Nizam. It is called Panch Mahala on account 
of its being divided into five apartments. 

Public Gardens. They have rare plants 
and well laid out beds of flowers. The ga rdens 
are open to the public from 6 a. m. to 9. p. m. 

Raymond's Tomb. Michel Joachim Marie 
Raymond was born in France in 1755. He came 
to Pondicherry in 1775 and entered the service 



86 

of Tipu Sultan. He subsequently joined Bussy on 
the return of the latter to India in 1783 and on 
B assy's death two years afterwards he entered 
the service of the Nizam. The tomb consists of 
a granite obelisk standing in the middle of an 
oblong platform. 

Salar Jung's Palace. The house was built 
by the late Sir Salar Jung in the fifties of the last 
century. The grandson of the builder, who enjoys 
the same title, has vast collections of Jade. Old 
Arms, Textiles, MSS. and Old China. Visitors 
may see the palace by arrangement with the 
Private Secretary to the Nawab Saheb. 

Victoria Memorial Orphanage. Children 
whose parents die early and who have no relatives 
to look after them, are sent to this institution 
under an Act of Government. The Orphanage 
has adequate arrangements for literary as well as 
industrial education under the superintendence of 
a European. 

Zoo (Public Gardens). It has a good 
collection of wild animals and birds. 




BonmSATTYA PAD 



(A.1ANTA) 



B. Places of historical interest outside 

the City of Hyderabad and its 

Suburbs 

Ajanta . 45 miles north of Aurangabad has 
obtained world-wide fame for its Buddhist cave 
temples, with fresco paintings. Hewn out of 
solid rock, these temples belong to a period of 
about 800 years, from the 2nd century B. C. to 
the 7th century A. D. The painting of the great 
Bodhisattva Padmapani, the lotus handed, in the 
Vihara cave No. 1 is regarded as the finest expres- 
sion of Indian art. Mr. Yazdani writes, "The 
name and history of the artist who painted this 
wonderful subject will never be known but the 
fading fresco, as long as it survives, will tell the 
story of the genius and skill of its author in most 
eloquent terms". There is a striking resemblance 
to the representations of the Madonna in Italian 
art, in the painting of the mother and the child 
offering alms to Buddha, when he revisits his 
native city after his enlightenment. The Toilet 
scene is another graceful painting. Mr. Gladstone 
Solomon writes, "I can think of no parallel to 
this frank and chivalrous woman worship at 



88 

Ajania. Nowhere else perhaps has woman 
received such perfect and understanding homage". 

Hieuen Tsang, the Buddhist Chinese traveller 
of the 7th century A. D., probably visited Ajanta. 
Some of the most beautiful sculptures are to be 
seen in cave No. 26. The death of Buddha is 
represented by a reclining sculpture, 23 ft. 3 in., 
in length. Above and below the dying Master 
are hundreds of natural-sized figures of monks 
grief-stricken over the passing away of Buddha. 

The inscriptions at Ajanta disclose the 
existence of the Vakataka dynasty, one of the 
most important dynasties that followed the 
Andhra dynasty. 

Alarapur. It is situated on the western bank 
of the River Tungabhadra, in the Raichur 
District. The fort in the town contains ruins of 
temples. The principal temple bears a striking 
resemblance to the Papanatha temple at 
Pattadakal in the Dharwar District. The inner 
plan and decoration of the temple bears a striking 
resemblance to the plans and carvings of some of 
the rock-hewn temples of western India. In the 
interior of these temples one is often likely to 
forget whether he is in a rock-hewn shrine or in 
a structual temple. The decorations and 
sculptures remind one of the Gupta Art, 



89 

Anagundi. It is one of the feudatory 
Samasthans in H. E. H. the Nizam's Dominions, 
situated on the left bank of the River Tunga- 
bhadra. On the opposite bank of the river are 
the ruins of Hampi-Vijayanagara. The neighbour- 
hood has been identified as the Kishkindha of 
the Ramayana. In the llth century, it formed 
part of the Chalukyan kingdom and was known as 
Kampila. The city was burnt by the Cholas in 
1068. In the 12th century, the country passed 
into the hands of the Hoysalas. The Yadava 
king, Mahadeva ruled over it in the 13tb century. 
About 1310, its ruler, Vira Kampila Deva, assert- 
ed his independence. In 1327 Muhammad Bin 
Tnghlaq sent an expedition and annexed it to his 
Empire. About 1344 Kampila again asserted its 
independence and became the nucleus out of 
which Vijayanagara was born. Anagundi or 
Kunjara Kona means The Elephant Corner. After 
the battle of Talikota, it again passed into the 
hands of the Sultans. In 1776 Tipu Sultan 
captured it. In 1800 it passed into the hands of 
the Nizam and the River Tungabhadra formed 
the natural boundary between the Nizam's and 
the Company's territories. 



90 

Nine tombs or Brindavanas of the Madhwa 
Saints are situated on a rocky island, near 
Anagundi. 

Aurangabad. It is the headquarters of the 
district bearing the same name. It was founded 
by the famous minister of the Ahmadnagar kings, 
Malik Arnbar, about 1610, and was known as 
Khirki. The present name, Aurangabad, was 
given to it during the viceroyalty of Aurangzeb 
in 1653. His first wife, Rabia Daurani Begum, 
died at Aurangabad and to her memory was 
erected ftie beautiful tomb known as Bibi-ka- 
Maqbara. It was intended to rival the celebrat- 
ed Taj Mahal at Agra, and like it, is visible for 
miles in every direction. The mausoleum stands 
within an enclosed area, 500 yds. long and 300 
yds. broad. The entrance gate contains an 
inscription giving the architect's name 'Ataullah 
and the Hijri date 1071. Beyond the gate is a 
spacious porch, surmounted by an arched dome. 
The walls and ceiling are tastefully ornamented. 
The Maqbara stands on a raised platform about 
20 ft. high, flanked at the four corners by 
minarets. The tomb is surrounded by an octagonal 
marble screen which is most elaborately pierced 
and carved. The screen at Agra is inlaid with 



91 

precious stones and various coloured marbles, 
while that in the Maqbara is constructed of purest 
white marble. 

About 2 miles north of the city are situated 
the cave temples of Aurangabad, belonging to the 
6th or 7th century A.D. They contain massive 
sculptures, the most important being the figure 
of Avalokiteswara with the eight scenes of the 
Buddhist prayer in which the Bodhisattva is 
invoked thus, "All hail ! great compassionate 
Padmapani Bodhisattva, Mahasattva ! From the 
devouring fire, merciful one, deliver us: "from the 
sword of the enemy, merciful Lord, deliver us! 
From captivity and slavery, merciful one, deliver 
us ! From shipwreck, compassionate Lord, deliver 
us! From wild beasts, posionous reptiles and enrag- 
ed animals, great compassionate Lord, deliver us! 
Hail ! Padmapani Bodhisattva ! Hail ! Amitabha 
Buddha. (See also Daulatabad and Raoza.) 

Bhadrachellum. The temple of Rama at 
Bhadrachellum is under the jurisdiction of 
H. E. H. the Nizam's Government. The govern- 
ment spends annually 25 to 30,000 rupees on its 
upkeep. To reach the temple, travellers have to 
alight at the Bhadrachellum Road Rly. Station 
and cross the River Godavari by ferryboats. 



92 

According to tradition, Rama, during his exile, 
built his cottage, known as Parnasala, near 
Bhadrachellum. Sita was carried away by 
Ravana from this place. The scene of the fight 
between Ravana and Jatayu, the vulture is near 
Dummagudem, (the place of Dust), 16 miles from 
Bhadrachellum. The temple of Rama at Bhadra- 
chellum was renovated by Ramdas alias Gopanna, 
the Tahsildar, during the reign of the QutubShahi 
king, Abul Hasan Tana Shah. The Telugu ballad, 
Ramdas Charitra, is very popular in the Telin- 
gana. A picture in the temple is shown as that 
of Ramdas. Ramdas was the nephew of the two 
famous Brahmin ministers of the last Qutub 
Shahi king, Akkanna and Madanna. 

Bhongir. Town and fort, 36 miles east of 
Hyderabad, is one of the earliest Deccan forts. 
Like the Warangal fort, it was once protected by 
a strong mud wall. In building the fort, advant- 
age was taken of a high rock, rising about 500 
ft. from the surrounding country and having 
steep sides all round except towards the south- 
east, in which direction the approach to the fort 
has been built. At a height of about 125 ft. the 
first gateway is reached, which is of Muslim 
style. The arch of the gateway has very fine 



93 

proportions. On the top of the hill, are the 
remains of the Baradari or the hailed pavilion. 

In 1709 a free booter named Paparai raided 
Bhongir and the neighbouring territory. Even- 
tually he was captured and executed. 

Bidar. It is built on an elevated and healthy 
plateau, 2330 ft. above sea level and has been 
identified as the ancient Vidarbha. In 1323 it 
passed into the hands of the Muslims. In 1429, 
the Bahmani Sultan, Ahmad Shah W^li, trans- 
ferred his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar. The 
fortifications of the place are very strong and 
present a striking appearance as they are 
approached. Several gateways lead to the fort, 
the most massive being the Gumbaz gate, with a 
huge dome covering it. Adjoining this gate are 
the ruins of royal palaces. The Rangin Mahal 
is, so called from the coloured tiles used in its 
construction and reveals Persian influence, in the 
elegant floral and calligraphical devices. What 
was known as the Zenana Mahal, is an audience 
hall, 109 ft. by 52 ft. and is decorated with 
exquisite tile work. The Takht Mahal, built on 
the brink of a precipice, was used as the Throne 
room. 



94 

The fortress has a circumference of 4500 yards 
and is thirty-six feet high. There are 37 massive 
bastions, the strongest of which rises to a height of 
120 ft., being known as the Kalyani Burj. There 
is a cannon mounted on one of the bastions, 28 
ft. 11 inches in length, perhaps, the longest gun 
in India. 

Two miles from Bidar are the tombs of the 
Bahmani kings. It is interesting to read the 
inscriptions on the tomb of Ahmad Shah Wali, 
the founder of Bidar, imbued with a strong Sufi 
spirit, * 

"In every form of creation I discerned 
Divine grace, 

In all I have seen love and adoration." 

By far the most remarkable monument in 
Bidar, is the college or Madrassah built by 
Mahmud Gawan, the famous minister of the 
Bahmanis, (1472 A.D.). The building rises to 
three stories in a most imposing pile. Its entire 
length extends to 205 ft., with a width of 180 ft. 
and is divided up into apartments comprising a 
mosque, a library, lecture halls, professors' 
quarters and students' cubicles. 



95 

To the west of the town are the tombs of the 
Barid Shahi kings, of which the most beautiful 
is that of *Ali Barid, the third ruler of the line. 

Daulatabad. A hill fort 10 miles from 
Aurangabad was known as Deogiri in early times 
and was the capital of the Yadava kings in the 
12th and 13th centuries. In 1338 Muhammad 
Bin Tughlaq transferred his capital from Delhi to 
Deogiri and changed the name to Daulatabad. 
Ibn Batuta, a native of Tangiers, who visited the 
Sultan's court at Daulatabad, described it as an 
enormous city which rivalled Delhi in importance 
and in the spaciousness of its planning. The 
Badshah Nama describes the fort as "standing on 
a rock which towers to the sky. In circumference 
it measures 5,000 legal gaz and the rock all round 
is smoothed so carefully, from the base of the 
fort to the level of the water, that a snake or an 
ant could ascend it only with great difficulty. 
Around it there is a moat, forty legpl^xards in 
width and thirty in depth, cut i 
In the heart of the rock there 
passage, like the ascent of a 
is needed to see one's way ir 
The steps are cut in the 
bottom is closed by an iron 




96 

road that the fortress is entered. Beside the 
passage a large iron brazier has been constructed, 
which, when necessary, could be placed in the 
middle of it and a fire being kindled in this 
brazier, its heat would effectually prevent all 
progress." In 1032 Daulatabad passed into the 
hands of the Mughals. 

An object of great interest at Daulatabad is 
the tall minaret erected by Sultan 'Alauddin in 
1435 A.D. The minaret is 210 ft. in height 
and its circumference at the basement is 70 ft. 

Ellon. Represents the synthesis of Hindu- 
ism, Jainism and Buddhism and is famous for its 
titanic sculptures. The massive sculpture of 
Ravana shaking the Kailasa is compared to the 
art of the great French sculptor, Rodin. An 
unusual sculpture is that of Narasimha in the 
Dasavatara cave, full of expression and suggestive 
of energy and vigorous action. 

Golconda. (See under The City of Hyder- 
abad and its Suburbs.) 

Gulbarga. It was the first capital of the 
Bahmani Sultans who rose to power in the 14th 
century. There is an old fort and in its neigh- 
bourhood are the tombs of the early Bahmani 



97 

kings. They greatly resemble the contemporary 
Tughlaq buildings in Northern India. 

Some little distance from these tombs is the 
darga or shrine of Banda Nawaz or Gisu Daraz, 
a celebrated Muslim saint, who came to Gulbarga 
during the reign ofFiroz Shah in 1413. The 
shrine is held in great veneration. Its walls are 
decorated with Quranic texts in gilt letters and 
there is a Persian couplet, praising the virtues of 
the saint. 

The great mosque in the fort is oije of the 
most remarkable buildings in the Dcccan. Some 
writers have compared it to the great Moorish 
mosque at Cardova in Spain. It is very spacious 
being 216 ft. in length from east to west and 176 
ft. from north to south. Its great peculiarity 
is that alone of all the great mosques in India, 
the whole area is covered in. Its architecture 
shows strong Hindu influence, both in building 
methods and decoration. 

The Bahmani dynasty reached the zenith of 
its power during the reign ofFiroz Shah (1397- 
1422 A. D.) and his decorated tomb vividly 
depicts the free intermingling of Hindu and 
Muslim art. 



Kalyani. It is the ancient capital of the 
western Chalukyas. The city became famous 
during the reign of Vikramaditya VI, (1076-1127), 
and was the home of poets like Bilhana and 
Jurists like the celebrated Vignaneswara, the 
author of Mitakshara, who wrote, " on the sur- 
face of the earth, there was not, there is not, and 
there will not be a town like Kalyana : never was 
a monarch like the prosperous Vikramarka seen 
or heard of. May the Lord Vikramaditya pro- 
tect this whole earth as long as the moon and 
stars endure." 

The present Nawabs of Kalyani are great 
patrons of art, especially painting. 

Kopbal. It is now a Jagir of Nawab Salar 
Jung Bahadur and the town of Kopbal has been 
identified as the ancient Kopanapura, an import- 
ant Jain centre of the 10th and llth centuries 
A. D. Two minor inscriptions of Asoka have 
been recently discovered on two rock boulders 
near Kopbal. One of them is completely legible, 
unlike the other inscriptions. There is a strong 
fortress, described by Sir John Malcolm in 1790 
as the strongest place he had seen in India. In 
1786 it was occupied by Tipu Sultan. In 1790 
it was successfully besieged by the forces of the 
British and the Nizam. 



99 

Malkhed. It was the ancient Many akh eta, the 
capital of the Rashtrakuta kings of the 9th cen- 
tury A. D. The Chola invasions of the 10th 
century led to the transfer of the capital to 
Kalyani, 48 miles north-eastwards. There is an 
old fort on the River Kagini. Of the Rashtra- 
kuta king Amoghavarsha, (814-880 A. D.), the 
Arab merchant Sulaiman, who travelled in wes- 
tern India in 851 A. D. 9 has written : " He is 
the fourth of the great monarchs of the world, 
the other three being the Caliph of Baghdad, 
the Emperor of China and the Emperor of 
Constantinople. " * 

Malkhed is now a place of pilgrimage for 
followers of the Madhwa sect. The tombs of 
their fifth and sixth Gurus, Akshobya and Jaya 
Tirtha, (1388 A. D.), are at Malkhed. 

Nanded. About halfway between Hyder- 
abad and Aurangabad, is an ancient town. Its 
original name, Nau Nanda Dehra, is associated 
with the nine Nandas who preceded Chandragupta 
Maurya about 325 B. C. It is now an important 
place of pilgrimage of the Sikhs. The remains of 
their last Guru, Guru Govind Singh, who died in 
1708, are interred there. His Exalted Highness 
the Nizam's Government has set aside the reve- 



100 

nue of five villages, yielding about Rs. 18,000 per 
year, for the maintenance of this shrine of Guru 
Govind Singh. Macauliffe quotes Guru Govind 
as having said : " The temple and the mosque 
are the same : the Hindu worship and the Mussal- 
man prayer are the same : all men are the same : 
it is through error they appear different "\ 

Paithan. On the River Godavari, 32 miles 
south-west of Aurangabad is one of the oldest 
cities of the Deccan. It was well known to the 
ancient Greeks and Romans for its textiles, em- 
broidery yvork, bead industry and particularly for 
its export of onyx stone, through Barugaza or 
Broach. It was one of the capitals of the 
Andhra-Satavahana kings, known as Pratishtana. 
Excavations recently carried out have disclosed 
16ft. below the surface level the remains of 
structures, built of burnt bricks of 14 to 16 inches 
in length. Andhra coins, bearing the emblem of 
the Bodhi tree and the Swastika, similar to the 
Andhra coins found at Taxila, have been dis- 
covered. 

Pakhal. About 40 miles from Warangal is 
the village of Pakhal, famous for the largest Ikke 
in Telingana, covering an area of 13 square miles. 
This was constructed during the reign of Gana- 



101 

pathi Deva, the Kakatiya king of the 13th cen- 
tury A. D. The bund on the western side is 
about a mile in length. On every side there is 
far stretching jungle. There is a local saying 
that a squirrel could reach Bhadrachellum from 
the neighbourhood of Pakhal by leaping from 
tree to tree. 

Palampet. It is another village, about 40 
miles from Warangal, on the shores of Ramappa 
lake, 8 square miles in extent. The temples of 
Ramappa in the village are described as the 
brightest stars in the galaxy of mediaeval 
Indian temples. They contain extremely artistic 
sculptures. No mortar was used in the construc- 
tion of the temple. The main temple has porti- 
coes on 3 sides. On either side of the doors 
of the porticoes, under the eaves are female 
figures arranged in pairs in the form of brackets. 
They are almost life size and are made of highly 
polished black basalt. Their poses are extremely 
graceful. The ceiling of the temple is full of 
ornamentation. Scenes from the Ramayana and 
the Puranas are represented in sculpture. The 
pillars are rich with subtle ornamentation. The 
figures of animals are also very fine. 

Raichur. It is an old town of the Deccan and 
figured prominently in the Bahmani-Vijayanagar 



102 

contest for the Raichur Doab. There is an in- 
scription in the old fort, dated 1294 A.D., 
recording its construction by one of the Kakatiya 
subordinates. The inner wall of the fort is con- 
structed of large blocks of gneiss, many of which 
are 12 ft. long and weigh upwards of 10 tons 
each. No mortar is used in this wall. The in- 
scription is engraved on a stone 41 ft. 5 inches 
long and over 3 feet deep. Close to this big 
stone, is a smaller one with a drawing, describing 
the manner in which the big stone was conveyed 
to this place. It was loaded on a four wheeled 
cart drawn by a long team of buifaloes with men 
driving the animals and applying levers at the 
wheels to push the cart forward. 

Raoza or Khuldabad. It is situated 14 miles from 
Aurangabad and has attained fame as the burial 
place of several distinguished personages, the 
most important of them being Emperor Aurang- 
zeb. It is remarkable for its austere simplicity. 
Near by are interred the remains of his second 
son, Prince Azam Shah. Opposite to these tombs 
is the tomb of Nawab Asaf Jah Bahadur, Nizam - 
ul Mulk, the founder of the Asaf Jahi dynasty. 
He was the most distinguished general of the 
Mughals, who proclaimed his independence in 



103 

. After a long and most remarkable career, 
he died at Burhanpur on the 19th June, 1748, at 
the age of 79 years. His remains were sent for 
interment to Raoza. Close by is the tomb of 
his second son, Nawab Nasir Jung Bahadur. A 
mile outside Raoza, are the tombs of the famous 
minister of Ahmadnagar, Malik Ambar, and the 
last Qutub Shahi king, Abul Hasan Tana Shah. 

Warangal. This town was known as 
Orukallu or Ekasila or the Single Rock. The 
fortress of Warangal was constructed during the 
reign of Ganapati Deva (1198A.D.). The capit- 
al of the Kakatiyas, before the construction of 
this fort, was at Hanamkonda, now a suburb of 
Warangal, famous for its magnificent temple, 
known as "The thousand pillared temple". 
The sacred bull in front of the temple is a splen- 
did specimen of a monolith. Several Jaina carv- 
ings are found on the rocks at Hanamkonda. 

Queen Rudramamba, the daughter of Gana- 
pathi Deva surrounded the city with a massive 
outer mud wall and completed the construction 
of the inner walls. The stone walls have 4 
gateways, remarkable for their strength. 
A special feature of the fortifications is a long 
flight of steps extending several hundred yards 



104 

on each side of the gateways, probably meant to 
enable the garrison to rush in large numbers to 
the ramparts to check a sudden attack from the 
enemy. 

The most remarkable monuments in the 
fort are the four large elaborately carved gate- 
ways, carved in black stone. They bear a close 
resemblance to the famous gateways at Sanchi. 

Excavations recently carried out in the fort 
have disclosed the remains of an unfinished 
temple. Artistic pillars, ceiling slabs very tastefully 
decorated and beautiful sculptures have been 
unearthed. They have been taken to 
the museum at Hyderabad and used for the 
construction of a Mantap, to illustrate the art of 
Warangal. 

Warangal passed into the hands of the 
Bahmani kings in the 14th century. There is a 
large hall, 86ft. by 24 ft., known as the Darbar 
hall of Shital) Khan, the governor of Warangal.